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ENG GRAMMER PLS
Eg : the fundamental problem facing the human race.
problem facing + noun !
吾明 face 點解可以加 ing
同點用this sentence pattern
2) the profound effect global warming has on the environment.
effect +n has/have on +noun
點用this sentence pattern
- DustinLv 46 年前最愛解答
(1) the fundamental problem facing the human race
This is not a complete sentence but a noun phrase.
"the fundamental problem" itself is a noun phrase.
"facing the human race" is a participle phrase acting as adjective to modify the noun "problem". It can also be viewed as a reduction of the relative clause "that faces the human race".
To complete the whole sentence, you need to have a predicate (a verb, as a minimum requirement) placed after the above noun phrase, the subject.
e.g. The fundamental problem facing the human race [ has become more related to the issues of environmental protection ].
where, [...] is the predicate of the sentence.
(2) the profound effect global warming has on the environment
Again, this is not a complete sentence but only a noun phrase.
"the profound effect" is a noun phrase by itself.
"(that) global warming has on the environment" is a relative clause modifying the noun "effect" with the relative pronoun "that" omitted.
Note that this relative clause cannot be reduced to a participle phrase as in (1), because the modified noun is the object of the relative clause.
i.e. global warming has [the profound effect] on the environment
Again, it needs a predicate to complete the sentence.
e.g. The profound effect global warming has on the environment has increased public awareness in recent decades.