chu 發問於 社會及文化語言 · 6 年前

relative clause 的簡化

若relative clause中的代名詞是object,則代名詞可省略

例: The man who we met last week is Mary's brother. -> The man we met last week is Mary's brother.

若relative clause中的代名詞是subject,則可轉為participle clause,省去代名詞,主動詞變為分詞

例: The boy who is arrested by police is thief. -> The boy being arrested by police is thief.

問題:若relative clause中的代名詞是subject,但後面所接的是linking verb + adjective,省略的形式會如何?

The singer who is popular is my sister. ->

(1) The singer popular is my sister.

(2) The singer being popular is my sister.

(1)/(2)兩者正確嗎?

The elderly who is alone asked me for help yesterday.

(3) The elderly alone asked me for help yesterday.

(4) The elderly being alone asked me for help yesterday.

(3)/(4)兩者正確嗎?

relative clause 的省略有何限制?

更新:

引用另一篇問題的內容:

being作連系動詞時,不可作"定語從句"。

http://www.for68.com/new/201012/li0824364755182101...

以上網址第"五"點,第1題,指出being不能取代定語從句。

更新 2:

The singer who is popular is my sister & The elderly who is alone asked me for help yesterday同樣是 who + linking verb (is) + predicative adjective (popular, alone)

即The singer being popular is my sister & The elderly being alone asked me for help yesterday 不符合Grammar 原則? 因為 being 係由連系動詞 is 轉變成

更新 3:

然而將 being 調前到句首

Being alone, the elderly asked me for help yesterday.

又可以接受?

更新 4:

還有,

predicative-only adjective

postposition adjective

是相同嗎?

更新 5:

The elderly alone asked me for help yesterday

以上句子, alone在沒有任何連系詞連接下,可以就這樣子放在被修飾名詞後面?

更新 6:

Godfrey 師兄,

你列舉了數個participle clause放在句首的例子

以說明若Being + adjective放在句首(用作連系動詞的話),是可以取代relative clause.

然而,若將being調往句中,是否不正璀?

http://www.for68.com/new/201012/li0824364755182101...

第"五"點,第1題所說

更新 7:

Being younger than the others, I always had to wear their old clothes.(right)

I being younger than the others always had to wear their old clothes.(wrong)

I, being younger than the others, always had to wear their old clothes.(wrong)

更新 8:

睇過咁多例子,我清楚知道"Being+adjective"係正確的

但似乎冇例子去說明若將"being+adjective"置中(放在subject後)是否正確

更新 9:

The weather being hot, we had to stay at home.

其實呢句既Being hot係狀語,好像是簡化成獨立主格結構。

If the weather is hot, we had to stay at home.

刪走 if 及將 is 變為 being 後,

The weather being hot, we had to stay at home.

但這就當然不是印證由relative clause( is+ adjective) 轉為 participle clause (being + adjective 置中) 的例子

更新 10:

My young son had a cold yesterday. 這句一定是通順的。

但我也有好奇心想知道My son being young had a cold yesterday. 這般的結構是否正確

更新 11:

Godfrey師兄:

我不太明白你在011中意見的意思

1) 你說non-defining clauses的節略主要發生在描述性形容?

2) 當被節略的relative clause的結構是"be+adjective"時,盯句子則不能被reduction

即使是

Being alone, the elderly asked me for help yesterday.也不正確

但上面句子不是你早前提出,說是正確的嗎?

更新 12:

謝謝你耐心的回答,

順帶一問

This is the only painting (which was) not sold during exhibition.

若定語從句是否定式,就這樣子刪去關係代詞及be就可以嗎?

更新 13:

因為我睇過一些例句,

He, who had not seen her for fifteen years or so, failed to recognize her at first.

省略後,

He failed to recognize her at first, having not seen her for fifteen years or so.

以上否定式的定語從句子,在簡化後

failed to recognize her at first調前了

更新 14:

經常聽你說comma前 participle phrase的是reason(原因)

想問除reason外,還有其他甚麼的

更新 15:

如句子是 He who did not wish to boast paused.

節略後變成 He not wishing yo boast paused. 有沒問題?

He who did not seen her for fifteen year failed to recognized her at fist.

節略後變成 He not seeing her for fifteen year failed to recognized her at fist. 又有沒問題?

3 個解答

評分
  • 6 年前
    最愛解答

    1. The popular singer is my sister.

    2. Being alone, the elderly asked me for help yesterday.

    “Being” is used in non-finite clauses where you are giving the reason for something.

    你的兩個 relative clauses 都是屬于這類形

    who + linking verb (is) + predicative adjective (popular, alone)

    通常刪除 who 和 linking verb,將 predicative adjective 放置在 subject 前面, 這 adjective 都是形容同一個 subject, 唯一不同名稱, 變了做 attributive adjective,

    第一句子便是這樣轉了

    第二句子, 不可以這樣轉, 因為 alone 只是 predicative-only adjective (e.g.. afraid, aware), 不能作 attributive adjective, 不能放置在 subject 前面, . “alone elderly” 是錯

    改了使用 present participle phrase, “Being alone”, 作句子的開頭, 有 comma 在 alone 後面. Being 在這裡有特別用法

    劍橋字典有一例句

    “Being afraid of the dark, she always slept with the light on.”

    轉回用 relative clause

    She who was afraid of the dark always slept with the light on

    “The elderly alone asked me for help yesterday. “

    這句中的 alone 解 ”只有自己一個人”,

    “you alone know/have/can do sth -used to say that you are the only person who knows or can do something

    不是解 “單獨的”~ without any other people, 孤單的﹐寂寞的 ~ feeling lonely”

    “The singer being popular is my sister.”

    有簡單句子”The popular singer is my sister” 不用

    The longer sentence sounds unnatural

    Does it sound classy?

    It also invites all kinds of trouble.

    Bing Translate:~

    “The singer being popular is my sister. = 受歡迎的歌手是我妹妹

    The popular singer is my sister.= 這位流行歌手是我妹妹”

    “being popular “放置在 subject 後面, "being" 中文可解 ”正在”.”being “ 是 “be” 的 present participle, ”.”being “ 在 subject 後面多少有點動作感, in active form

    還有 popular 不是 postpositive adjective, (少數形容詞)

    例如 all the people present, accounts payable, God almighty,

    即是一個 adjective 直接在 subject 後面來形容 subject,

    如果不是 postpositive adjective, 需要 adjective phrase

    Julie has given a good example.

    “The singer popular with young people is my sister.”

    Meaning 上少少變, popular with young people

    2015-05-21 20:19:50 補充:

    postpositive adj. 不是 predicative-only adj.

    用 predicative-only adj. 要 linking verb 來 link subject 與 adj.

    subject + link. verb + predicative adj.

    The boy is afraid.

    afraid 不能做 attributive adj. 所以稱 predicative-only adj.

    2015-05-21 20:26:54 補充:

    postpositive adjective is placed right after the noun.

    noun 與 adj. 之間無任何 verb

    The chemicals obviously kill any bacteria present. ( present 是 postpositive adj.)

    The boy is present. (present 是 predicative adj.)

    The present owner is a Jew. (present 是 attr. adj.)

    Sorry, I have to go now. 有時間再談!

    2015-05-22 01:43:39 補充:

    The elderly alone asked me for help yesterday.

    小心, alone 可以做 adj. 或 adverb, 在這句是 adverb

    ~ to emphasize that there is only one person who asked me for help

    "The elderly who is alone asked me for help yesterday." ~ 不同 meaning

    alone 做 predicative adj. 解 "單獨, 無伴" alone 前面是 linking verb

    2015-05-22 02:47:29 補充:

    “Being afraid of the dark, she always slept with the light on.

    Being younger than the others, I always had to wear their old clothes.

    Being young, he did not worry" ~.字典

    "Also, being alone with my daughter, I could see how mature and successful she is." ~ "Time"

    2015-05-22 20:19:57 補充:

    "Being younger than the others, I always had to wear their old clothes." ~ from Macmillan 字典

    其他有聲譽字典的例句, 可信性極高, 劍橋字典已出 4th edition

    我信牛橋, 朗文 grsmmar 書籍多過網上的 blog

    "Being ......" 這 participial phrase 是句子開頭

    similar to "Turning the corner, we saw the hospital in front of us."

    2015-05-22 20:34:05 補充:

    Typo error: grammar, 不是 "grsmmar"

    小心, participial phrase 的 subject 是 main clause 的 subject

    除了一些 common phrases, e.g. "Frankly speaking, ...."

    Turning the corner, the hospital was iin front of us. ~ 錯

    2015-05-23 20:17:40 補充:

    另外一說法, 用 adjective phrase 作 appositive, 有兩個 commas, non-defining 性質

    意思變了些少, 通常 appositive 多數是 noun phrase

    The elderly, alone without any close friends, asked me for help yesterday.

    "being+adjective" 放在 subject 後是否正確?

    我先聽其他網友意見, 純知識交流

    2015-05-24 07:59:46 補充:

    你給 thread, The weather being hot, we had to stay at home.

    being hot 不是形容 subject, "we"

    是形容 weather, The weather being hot 不是 adj. phrase, 是作状语 adverbial

    "being+adject. "放在 subject 後是否正確?

    只有 Jenkin 說正確

    你選擇那個?

    1 My young son had a cold yesterday.

    2 My son being young had a cold yesterday.

    2015-05-25 07:59:06 補充:

    Summary:

    relative clause 的簡化

    In defining clauses we can leave out the relative pronoun and part of the verb phrase to leave a past participle or a present participle acting as an adjective to define the noun.

    2015-05-25 08:14:30 補充:

    In non-defining clauses reduced clauses often occur in descriptive writing.

    You can't reduce a relative clause with "be" followed by a single adjective in this way.

    Being alone, the elderly asked me for help yesterday.

    Even 這句, "Being alone" gives the reason for the action.

    2015-05-25 08:22:28 補充:

    結論:

    句子 (1), (2), (4) 錯

    (3) 是 grammar 對, 但 meaning 不同

    2015-05-25 08:34:31 補充:

    The singer being popular is my sister. ~ 錯

    The popular singer is my sister. ~ 對

    Writing plain English isn't easy:

    You have to think hard about what you are going to say, why you are saying it, and who'll be reading it.

    Thanks, Julia.

    2015-05-25 10:29:01 補充:

    Sorry, 可能我講得詞不達意

    In defining clauses:

    This is the only painting (which was) not sold during exhibition.

    Most of the people (who were) waiting for tickets went away dissappointed.

    In non-defining clause:

    The policeman, (who was) covered in blood, went back to the car.

    2015-05-25 11:06:30 補充:

    The singer (who is) popular is my sister. ~ 單 delete "who is" 錯

    The popular singer is my sister. ~ delete "who is" , popular 移去 singer 前

    不同前三句, 不是每個 adj. 可以

    Being alone, the elderly asked me for help yesterday. ~ grammar 對, meaning 不同

    Being alone 是原因 , 必定放置句子前, 有 comma

    2015-05-25 11:32:07 補充:

    其實 The lone elderly asked me for help yesterday. 更貼切, lone 是另外一個 adj.

    o reduce a relarive clause "who + be + adj." 是無 rule 可跟, may follow a guideline

    The house (which is) on sale includes a garage.

    on sale ~ preposition phrase

    英語除了 grammar, 要考慮 usage, 適當的 word 很重要

    2015-05-25 19:18:42 補充:

    This is the only painting not sold during exhibition. ~ 無問題

    "who had not seen her for fifteen years or so" 是 non-defining, past perfect tense

    having not seen 雖然有 perfect aspect, 是 non-finite verb in a participal phrase

    having not seen her for 15 years ,, 是 reason, 可放置前或後

    2015-05-25 19:24:47 補充:

    Having not seen her for 15 years or so, he failed to recognize her at first ~ also OK

    "Having not seen her for 15 years or so" gives a reason for failing to recognize her.

    一定有 comma

    It is 7.25 am. I have to go now.

    資料來源: Yahoo English Dictionary
  • 6 年前

    The popular singer is my sister. (adjective - single word)

    The singer popular with young people is my sister. (adjective phrase)

    "popular with ..." 深受年輕人的喜愛

  • Jenkin
    Lv 7
    6 年前

    就你提出的選擇來講:

    The singer who is popular is my sister. ->

    (2) The singer being popular is my sister.

    The elderly who is alone asked me for help yesterday. ->

    (4) The elderly being alone asked me for help yesterday.

    其實你自己的原則已經解釋了,因為兩個/句都是SUBJECT,動詞還是形容詞等關於這SUBJECT的情況只是句子表達的內容,跟以WHO來附加/連接或改寫沒有文法上的分別。

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