I need the answer the the following questions. Urgent please
1. What does Hegel mean by "Spirit'?
2. According to Hegel, do freedom and reason mean the same thing - self-actualization?
3. Did Hegel say anything about human esixtence/essence existence? If yes, what did he say?
Thank you for the answers
- BennyPoonLv 76 年 前最佳解答
1. In Hegel’s earliest works, “spirit” meant the character of a people or a times, which is formed by their experiences in history, producing and reproducing their lives, enjoying victories and suffering defeats in war. Later on, after about 1804/5, it was a “World Spirit” which expressed or manifested itself in the life and times of civilisation as a whole. Rather than an outcome of history, it was present at the outset only needing to unfold and become conscious of itself. Despite the metaphysics, there is a significant core of truth in this later concept of Spirit which is rational and still waits to be recovered.
Thus it is with Hegel’s Spirit. It is frequently said that Hegel can be neither understood nor appropriated piecemeal, so the problem of Spirit cannot be bypassed. The underlying natural foundation of Spirit must be grasped so that Hegel’s insights into historical and cultural development, contained in his philosophy of spirit, can be appropriated and transcended.
2. The solution to today’s inequality and poverty can come from the dialectic process described by Hegel. The present trickle down economics of small government and minimal regulations which makes decisions through the lens of individualism that is responsible for the increasing income gap constitutes one opposing view while making economic and environment decisions through the lens of the social determinants of health to counter inequity in the system makes up the opposing thesis. We accept progress results from the conflict of man’s interest and passions – assuming he has choices not limited by social or health inequities. Somewhere between the two thesis lies the goal of the individual struggling to reach the self-actualization envisioned by Hegel.
2014-03-05 10:27:55 補充：
3. Hegel regarded human beings as rational beings. Reason was something that would self-actualize in the world. Freedom, the essence of reason, was to be realized along with the development of history.