心悅 發問於 文學及人文學歷史 · 7 年 前

幫我翻譯以下的文章

羅貫中,一名羅本,生於元末明初,山西太原人。

  元代中期,由於滅宋戰爭的創傷逐漸平息,社會的經濟、文化重心也開始由北方轉移到了南方。南宋的故都杭州不僅成為人口雲集、商業發達的繁華城市,也成為戲劇演出和「說話」藝術發展的重要中心。因此,不少北方的知識分子、「書會材人」,如關漢卿、鄭光祖等等,都先後遷徙到了杭州一帶。

  身為小說兼雜劇作家的羅貫中,也必然受到這一社會潮流的影響,成為這類南遷作家中的一個。

  羅貫中外號「湖海散人」,這個稱號就寄寓著漫遊江湖、浪跡天涯的意味。大約在西元一三四五~一三五五年間,他來到了杭州。許多說話藝人在這裡說書,一些雜劇作家,也在這裡活動。羅貫中與志同道合者為友。加上他對民間文學又極其喜愛,到了這裡,自然不願離開遠去。也就這時,羅貫中結識了當時在杭州居住,但年齡他大二十歲左右的施耐庵。

  羅貫中的籍貫又有「東原人」之說,這是他漫遊出晉後在「東原」(今山東省)客居過一段時間的緣故。他到這裡,是被當時社會上十分流行的梁山泊和宋江的故事吸引而來。他到那裡考察了解當地的風土人情,搜集在民間流傳的水滸英雄故事材料。這是他後來參與《水滸傳》編纂創作的一個重要原因。關於「千聖姑」和「貝州王則」的故事,當時也在社會上廣泛流傳。因此,羅貫中就在這一帶對這個故事進行了搜集、整理,以至有《三逐平妖傳》之作。

  約在西元一三六Ο~一三六三年間,「有志圖王」的羅貫中來到了起事稱霸的張士誠那裡作客。但是,張士誠並不重視知識分子,也不聽取他們的意見。至正二十三年(西元一三六三年)九月,劉亮、魯淵等人紛紛離去,不久,羅貫中也離開了張士誠,再次北上,到至正二十六年,羅貫中又回到了杭州。《三國志通俗演義》的寫作,當在該年以後。這時,他已是五十多歲的人了,對歷史、對人生都有了比較成熟的看法,完全具備了創作《三國志通俗演義》的條件。到明太祖洪武三年(西元一三七O年),羅貫中已寫了十二卷,之後卷數的寫作,是洪武四年以後的事了。

  在羅買中寫作《三國志通俗演義》期間,施耐庵從蘇州遷移到興化,並在洪武三年逝世。為了紀念他的師友施耐庵,羅貫中在完成《三國志通俗演義》之後,決定加工、增補施氏的《水滸傳》。成書於洪武四年至十年之間。

  在加工、增補《水滸傳》的同時,羅貫中繼續創作歷史演義系列作品。

  羅貫中在創作完了這些作品以後,已是六十幾歲的老人了。他為了出版這些作品,於洪武十三年左右從杭州來到了福建,因為當時福建的建陽是出版業的中心之一。但是,羅貫中的這一目的未能實現。

  大約在西元一三八五~一三八八年間,羅貫中活了七十歲,在宋代民族英雄文天祥的故里盧陵逝世。

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    Luo Guanzhong, a Robben Born Yuanmomingchu, Shanxi Taiyuan people.

    Mid yuan, the conquest of the Sung war trauma subsides, social, economic, and cultural center of gravity also started spreading from the north to the south. Southern Song Dynasty, the ancient capital of Hangzhou has not only become a bustling city population gathered developed commercial, theater performances and "speak" the development of the arts center. Therefore, many intellectuals in the north, "the book will be material, such as Guan Hanqing, Zheng Guangzu, etc., are successively migrate to the vicinity of Hangzhou.

    As the writer of novels and Chief Drama Luo Guanzhong, also will be subject to the impact of this social trend, this type of the southward migration writers in.

    The Luo Guanzhong nickname "lake sea scattered people, this title is ignited roaming rivers and lakes, wandering imply. About in one thousand three hundred forty-five 1355, he came to Hangzhou. Many storytellers to speak artists here, some Play Writers in here activities. Luo Guanzhong with like-minded friends. Coupled with his extremely popular folk literature, here, naturally do not want to leave away. Also in this case, Luo Guanzhong became acquainted with living in Hangzhou, but the age of his sophomore year-old about the Shinai.

    Luo Guanzhong's the Hometown another East Hominid "said he roamed Jin after guest in" East of the original "(now Shandong province) over a period of time's sake. Here, is then society the very popular Liangshanpo and the story of Song Jiang attracted by. There observing and understanding the local customs, collect folklore the Water Margin hero story material. This is an important reason he was involved in the creation of "Outlaws of the Marsh" codification. About "thousands Shenggu" and King Pui State is "the story, was also widespread in the community. Therefore, Luo Guanzhong in this band on this story. Collect, collate, as well as the "three-by-Ping Yao for.

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    Centre for Social Impact

  • 7 年 前

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