TOMING88, 個標題打漏咗少少, 我其實想問 [發明he, she之後的動詞加s有何目的&好處?].
hahatse, 我明你個意思, 但是他們又發明modal verbs, 這不是又削了你說那個優勢嗎?
- HaHaLv 78 年前最愛解答
這是個歷史的問題，因為在古英文裏，word order並不重要，因為在古英文裏，字與字之間的關係都由每字所顯示的gender(性）, case（格）, number（數） and person（身）連上來。
也由於古英文裏，動詞未必立即隨著主詞，故就以身，數來使人知道，那個動詞是屬於那個名詞。（注：這如同希臘文一樣，konie Greek希臘文就充分顯示這種關係）。後來，在演變的過程中，慢慢英文的word order變得相當重要，而字的特性也越來越簡單，所以，受格（代名詞還是存在），dative case（與格）等等，就用另外的方法表達，而不在字裏顯示。但第三身單數名詞，仍以單數動詞跟隨，這卻仍然存留在現今的英文上。其實嚴謹的英文文法，是有很大用處，特別在緊要的契約上，所以，法律的文件，用英文實比中文好得多，不容易產生混淆不清。當你越學英文，你就會發現，這不是它的壞處，而是好處
以下是一篇文章，可對你了解有用：OE was largely a synthetic language; it possessed a system of grammatical forms, which could indicate the connection between words; consequently, the functional load of syntactic ways of word connection was relatively small. It was primarily a spoken language, therefore the written forms of the language resembled oral speech - unless the texts were literal translations from Latin or poems with stereotyped constructions. Consequently, the syntax of the sentence was relatively simple; coordination of clauses prevailed over subordination; complicated syntactical constructions were rare.The syntactic structure of a language can be described at the level of the phrase and at the level of the sentence. In OE texts we find a variety of word phrases (also: word groups or patterns).The connection between the parts of the sentence was shown by the form of the words as they had formal markers for gender, case, number and person. The presence of formal markers made it possible to miss out some parts of the sentence which would be obligatory in an English sentence now.The formal subject was lacking in many impersonal sentences (though it was present in others).There was multiple negation within a single sentence or clause. The most common negative particle was "ne", which was placed before the verb; it was often accompanied by other negative words, mostly "naht" or "noht", these words reinforced the meaning of negation.希望幫到你！
2012-08-21 21:51:02 補充：
2012-08-21 21:52:12 補充：
Compound and complex sentences existed in the English language since the earliest times. Even in the oldest texts we find numerous instances of coordination and subordination and a large inventory of subordinate clauses, subject clauses, object clauses, attributive clauses adverbial clauses.
2012-08-21 21:53:04 補充：
Repetition of connectives at the head of each clause (correlation) was common in complex sentences.
The Phrase. Noun, Adjective and Verb Patterns.
2012-08-21 21:53:22 補充：
A noun pattern consisted of a noun as the head word and pronouns, adjectives, numerals and other nouns as determiners and attributes. Most noun modifiers agreed with the noun in gender, number and case.
2012-08-21 21:53:35 補充：
on ðǽm ōðrum ðrīm daзum ‘in those other three days’ – Dat. pl Masc.
An adjective pattern could include adverbs, nouns or pronouns in one of the oblique cases with or without prepositions, and infinitives.
him wæs manna ðearf ‘he was in need of man’.
2012-08-21 21:53:46 補充：
Verb patterns included a great variety of dependant components: nouns and pronouns in oblique cases with or without prepositions, adverbs, infinitives and participles
2012-08-21 21:54:17 補充：
brinз ðā ðīnз ‘bring those things’.
2012-08-21 21:54:24 補充：
The word order of Old English was not important because of the aforementioned morphology of the language. As long as declension was correct, it did not matter whether you said, "My name is..." as "Mīn nama is..." or "Nama mīn is..."
2012-08-23 12:18:38 補充：
古英文我並沒有深究，但它的祖先希臘文，卻是一隻字裏已藏有很多文法東西，包括mordal的事情。但在歷史裏，因著英文越來越普及，對於某些人民來說，一隻字有很多文法的事物，實為複雜，故就產生了mordal verbs，但因為mordal verbs也有特定的用法，也不會因此產生混淆，故此，並未削弱它的優勢啊！
- TOMING88Lv 78 年前
The discovery about Gender is to "hidings"
General information about gender--people--man,actor==he
-----------guest,student,teacher------------==,hs or she
Grammatical gender barely concerns nouns but personal pronoun eg ,he or she
(1)Identifying masculine or feminine thru pronouns.
My accountant said that she was moving.
My doctor said that she was injecting the patient.
(2)Identifying masculine and feminine thru nouns in contrasting nouns describing people (replaceable by he/she)
bachelor/spinster, boy/girl, brother/sister, gentleman/lady, husband/wife, king/queen, man/woman, monk/nun, Mr./Mrs. nephew/niece.
hence the above "hiding in action can be done".
(3)"-ess"endings and other forms indicating sex/gender with the suffix -ess:-
actor/actress, god/goddess, heir/heiress, host/hostess/ prince/princess, steward/stewardess, waiter/waiteress.bridegroom/bride, hero/heroine, landlord/landlady, usher/usherette,widower/widow, -----where "hiding in action can be manipulated to hide your true self from view=secret by describing people=he/she. Or he-/she- in stressed voiced form in eg:-he-goat/she-goat ,or wolf/she-wolf
(4) The Chinese language are doing very well "to hide sex-gender from view=secret' by saying "YOU"=he/she???????"YOU" in Chinese=he/she ???????Hence to hide from someone with he/she.資料來源： google
- 「本週之星」Lv 78 年前
- 匿名8 年前
Middle English -(e)s (third person singular ending of verbs) from Northern Old English (Northumbian dialect) -es, -as (third person singular ending). Replaced historical Old English third person singular ending -(e)þ, -aþ (-eth).