Language and Communication
What does 'interactional ratification' mean in the following quote? Best if you can explain the whole sentence to me in English, or in Chinese if you can't. And an explanation for the phrase 'conversational matrix' in the quote too. thx, also for the use of this sentence structure 'Indeed the.... is such that ....', especially the use of 'is such that' here. Note this is a passage about Language and Communication:
''In the same way it may be argued that many kinds of speech act are built on the assumption of a conversational matrix -- betting, for example, requires uptake to be effective, so that the utterance does not succeed without the interactional ratification typical of conversation. Indeed the conversational dependence of illocutionary force is such that the concept itself can be claimed to be substantially replaced by concepts of conversational function, as we shall see.''
Plus this: 'Indeed the conversational dependence of illocutionary force is such that the concept itself can be claimed to be substantially replaced by concepts of conversational function.'
The idea of 'the conversational dependence of illocutionary force' is really abstract, plz give a good explanation. And the structure 'is such that the...' is repeated but doesn't make a lot of sense to me either. Best with a decent definition of the whole sentence.
- kill me babyLv 78 年前最愛解答
LANGUAGE is the development of the basic form of communication between human beings, and in a society. And just as it is the basic form, it is also the most developed. We cannot communicate in any real sense without language, other than through gestures; we do communicate through some non-verbal forms like the visual arts - painting and sculpture - and through dance, but the culmination of true, articulate, communication is through language. It could take a number of forms, of course. It could be unvarnished, workaday prose, it could be poetry, it could be drama; but all of these are forms of language, written, spoken and read.You may wonder why I am spelling out what are elementary, basic and self-evident truths. It is for two reasons: one is that from time to time we need to reiterate to ourselves some truths that, without such reiteration, may well recede into the background of one's concerns; and the other is the present situation in which we find ourselves with regard to language.Let us, for the purposes of this argument, set aside the question of English and the mother tongue. Let us limit our concern to English. It is this language that is used in the world of finance, commerce, education, research, and the dissemination of knowledge (though other languages play different roles in some of these areas as well). It is essential if one is to study medicine, for example; or if one is to become a pilot of a sophisticated fighter aircraft. And it is the language of management, indeed of government, in most parts of the country.But the purpose is not to argue for or against the English language. It is there and we need to recognise that it will be there for many years to come, and play a vital role in the evolution of India as a major economic and political force in the world. And in other areas as well - creative writing, for example, in which Indian writers have won world renown and respect.