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The Kangxi Emperor ( Chinese: 康熙帝; pinyin: Kāngxīdì; Wade–Giles: K'ang-hsi-ti; temple name: Qīng Shèngzǔ (清聖祖); Mongolian: Энх-Амгалан хаан, 4 May 1654 –20 December 1722) was the third emperorof the Qing Dynastyand the second Qing emperor to rule over China proper, from 1661 to 1722.Kangxi's reign of 61 years makes him the longest-reigning Chinese emperor in history(although his grandson, the Qianlong Emperor, had the longest period of de facto power) and one of the longest-reigning rulers in the world. However, having ascended to the throne at the age of seven, he was not the effective ruler until later, with that role temporarily fulfilled for six years by four regentsand his grandmother, the Grand Empress Dowager Xiaozhuang.Kangxi is considered one of China's greatest emperors. He suppressed the Revolt of the Three Feudatories, forced the Kingdom of Tungningon Taiwanto submit to Qing rule, blocked Tzarist Russiaon the Amur Riverand expanded the empire in the northwest. He also accomplished such literary feats as the compilation of the Kangxi Dictionary.Kangxi's reign brought about long-term stability and relative wealth after years of war and chaos. He initiated the period known as the "Prosperous Era of Kangxi and Qianlong", which lasted for generations after his own lifetime. By the end of his reign, the Qing Empire controlled all of China proper, Manchuria(including Outer Manchuria), part of the Russian Far East, both Innerand Outer Mongolia, and Joseon Koreaas a protectorate.
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