- 10 年 前最佳解答
History of Easter
Easter is a spring festival that celebrates the central event of the Christian faith: the resurrection of Christ three days after his death by crucifixion. Easter is the oldest Christian holiday and the most important day of the church year. All the Christian movable feasts and the entire liturgical year of worship are arranged around Easter.
Easter Sunday is preceded by the season of Lent, a 40-day period of fasting and repentence culminating in Holy Week, and followed by a 50-day Easter Season that stretches from Easter to Pentecost.
Name of Easter
The origins of the word "Easter" are not certain, but probably derive from Estre, an Anglo-Saxon goddess of spring. The German word Ostern has the same derivation, but most other languages follow the Greek term used by the early Christians: pascha, from the Hebrew pesach (Passover).
In Latin, Easter is Festa Paschalia (plural because it is a seven-day feast), which became the basis for the French Pâques, the Italian Pasqua, and the Spanish Pascua. Also related are the Scottish Pask, the Dutch Paschen, the Danish Paaske, and the Swedish Pask.
Date of Easter
The method for determining the date of Easter is complex and has been a matter of controversy. Put as simply as possible, the Western churches (Catholic and Protestant) celebrate Easter on the first Sunday following the first full moon after the spring equinox.
But it is actually a bit more complicated than this. The spring equinox is fixed for this purpose as March 21 (in 2004, it actually falls on March 20) and the "full moon" is actually the paschal moon, which is based on 84-year "paschal cycles" established in the sixth century, and rarely corresponds to the astronomical full moon. These complex calculations yield an Easter date of anywhere between March 22 and April 25.
The Eastern churches (Greek, Russian, and other forms of Orthodoxy) use the same calculation, (........To be cont. in supp./comm.fields)
2010-04-01 20:45:56 補充：
but based on the Julian calendar (on which March 21 is April 3) and a 19-year paschal cycle.
Thus the Orthodox Easter sometimes falls on the same day as the western Easter (it does in 2010 and 2011), but the two celebrations can occur as much as five weeks apart.
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In the 20th century, discussions began as to a possible worldwide agreement on a consistent date for the celebration of the central event of Christianity. No resolution has yet been reached.
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The Easter Controversy
There is evidence that Christians originally celebrated the resurrection of Christ every Sunday, with observances such as Scripture readings, psalms, the Eucharist, and a prohibition against kneeling in prayer.
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At some point in the first two centuries, however, it became customary to celebrate the resurrection specially on one day each year. Many of the religious observances of this celebration were taken from the Jewish Passover.
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The specific day on which the resurrection should be celebrated became a major point of contention within the church. First, should it be on Jewish Passover no matter on what day that falls, or should it always fall on a Sunday? It seems Christians in Asia took the former position,
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while those everywhere else insisted on the latter. Eminent church fathers Irenaeus & Polycarp were among Asiatic Christians, & they claimed authority of St. John the Apostle for their position. Nevertheless, church majority officially decided that Easter should be celebrated on a Sunday.
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This issue was decided at the Council of Nicea in 325, which decreed that Easter should be celebrated by all on the same Sunday, which Sunday shall be the first following the paschal moon (and the paschal moon must not precede the spring equinox),
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and that a particular church should determine the date of Easter and communicate it throughout the empire (probably Alexandria, with their skill in astronomical calculations).
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The policy was adopted throughout the empire, but Rome adopted an 84-year lunar cycle for determining the date, whereas Alexandria used a 19-year cycle.
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Use of these different "paschal cycles" persists to this day and contributes to the disparity between the eastern and western dates of Easter.
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Religious Observances on Easter
Common elements found in most Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, and Protestant religious Easter celebrations include baptisms, the Eucharist, feasting, and greetings of "Christ is risen!" and "He is risen indeed!"
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In Roman Catholicism, and some Lutheran and Anglican churches, Easter is celebrated with a vigil that consists of "the blessing of the new fire (a practice introduced during the early Middle Ages); the lighting of the paschal candle;
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a service of lessons, called the prophecies; followed by the blessing of the font and baptisms and then the mass of Easter." The traditional customs of the Catholic church are described in detail in the online Catholic Encyclopedia.
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In Orthodox churches, the vigil service is preceded by a procession outside the church. When the procession leaves the church, there are no lights on. The procession conducts a symbolic fruitless search for Christ's body,
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then joyfully announces, "Christ is risen!" When the procession returns to the church, hundreds of candles and lamps are lit to symbolize the splendor of Christ's resurrection, and the Easter Eucharist is taken.
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Protestant observances also include baptism and the Eucharist (or Lord's Supper), and often a sunrise service (to commemorate Mary Magdalene's arrival at the empty tomb "early, while it was still dark") and special hymns and songs.
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Popular Easter Customs
Over the centuries, these religious observances have been supplemented by popular customs, many of were incorporated from springtime fertility celebrations of European and Middle Eastern pagan religion.
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Rabbits and eggs, for example, are widely-used pagan symbols for fertility. Christians view the Easter eggs as symbols of joy and celebration (as they were forbidden during the fast of Lent) and of new life and resurrection. A common custom is to hide brightly colored eggs for children to find.資料來源： dltk-bible+me
- 10 年 前
復活節原本是古代異教的「春節」，是慶祝春回大地一切恢復生機的節日。復活節可追溯到古巴比倫的愛情、生育和戰爭女神『伊什塔爾』（Ishtar）。後來，此女神變成了西歐的黎明和春天女神 Eastre（證據之一是兩個名字相似的讀音）。另一證據是 Eastre 此字有東方（即 East）的含義，因太陽是從東方升起的 。
1774年，英國著名探險家詹姆斯·庫克船長再次找到該島。1914年開始對復活節島進行相關的考察和研究活動。當地人稱此島為 Rapa Nui，據說是1860年代，來自大溪地的航海者所命名的。目前復活節島由智利統治。
與尼散月相關的名字 (Eostre Month) (Ven.Bede states: Eostur-monath)
日語：復活祭（Fukkatsu-sai，意思為「復活的節日」）或 イースター Īsutā，來自英語
阿拉伯語：عيد الفصح（ʿAīd ul-Fiṣḥ）