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樂理 about Phantom of the Opera
what is the form of "the Phantom of the opera" (e.g. AABB, ABAB)
and the rhythm (e.g. repeated rhythmic pattern )
- ?Lv 61 十年前最愛解答
The next level concerns the entire structure of any single more or less self-contained musical piece. If the hymn, ballad, blues or dance alluded to above simply repeats the same musical material indefinitely then the piece is said to be in strophic form overall. If it repeats with distinct, sustained changes each time, for instance in setting, ornamentation or instrumentation, then the piece is a Theme and variations. If two distinctly different themes are alternated indefinitely, as in a song alternating verse and chorus or in the alternating slow and fast sections of the Hungarian czardas. then this gives rise to a simple two-fold or binary form. If the theme is played (perhaps twice), then a new theme is introduced, the piece then closing with a return to the first theme, we have a simple ternary form. - (see Single forms below)
Great confusion, argument and misunderstanding can be generated by such terms as "ternary" and "binary", however, since a complex piece may have elements of both at different organisational levels. For example, a simple minuet, like any Baroque dance, generally had a simple AABB binary structure - but this was frequently extended by the introduction of another minuet arranged for solo instruments (called the trio), after which the first was repeated again and the piece ended. This, of course, is a ternary form - ABA: the piece is binary on the lower compositional level but ternary on the higher. Organisational levels are not clearly and universally defined in western musicology, while words like "section" and "passage" are used at different levels by different scholars whose definitions, anyway, as Scholes (1977) and others point out, cannot keep pace with the myriad innovations and variations devised by musicians.
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The grandest level of organisation is sometimes called "cyclical form" (Scholes 1977): it concerns the arrangement of several more or less self-contained pieces into a large-scale composition.
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For example, a set of songs having a related theme may be presented as a song-cycle whereas a set of Baroque dances was presented as a suite. The opera and ballet may organise song and dance into even larger forms, perhaps based upon the layout of a Shakespearean drama.
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A setting of the Roman Catholic mass requires certain hymns in a certain order. This level of musical form, though it again applies and gives rise to different genres, takes more account of the methods of musical organisation used.
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For example a symphony, a concerto and a sonata differ in scale and aim but generally resemble one another in the manner of their organisation. The individual pieces that make up the larger form are sometimes called movements. (see Cyclical forms below)
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Scholes (1977) suggested that European classical music had only six main stand-alone forms; simple binary, simple ternary, compound binary, rondo, air with variations, and fugue, although he allowed for several sub-categories and hybrids. Mann (1958),
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however, while confirming that the fugue has taken on certain structural conventions at times, emphasised that it is primarily a method of composition.
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Where a piece cannot readily be broken down into sectional units (though it might borrow some form from a poem, story or programme) It is said to be through-composed. Such is often the case with pieces named Fantasia,
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Prelude, Rhapsody, Etude or study, Symphonic poem, Bagatelle (music), Impromptu etc.
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Keil (1966) classified forms and formal detail as sectional, developmental or variational.
Sectional form is built from a sequence of clear-cut units (DeLone 1975) that may be referred to by letters as outlined above but also often have generic names such as Introduction and Coda,
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Exposition, Development and Recapitulation, Verse, Chorus or Refrain and Bridge. Introductions and codas, when they are no more than that, are frequently excluded from formal analysis. All such units may typically be eight measures long. Sectional forms include:
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Strophic form (AAAA...) indefinitely - the "unrelieved repetition" that is one extreme of the spectrum of musical form.
Medley, potpourri or Chain form: this is the opposite extreme of "unrelieved variation": it is simply an indefinite sequence of self-contained sections (ABCD...),
2010-03-20 14:11:32 補充：
sometimes with repeats (AABBCCDD...). Orchestral overtures, for example, are sometimes no more than a string of the best tunes of the show to come, possibly, like Johann Strauss' Blue Danube waltz, ending with a reprise of the main theme; ((intro)ABCD...A1(coda)).
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Binary form using two sections (AB...); each section is often repeated (AABB...). In 18th-century western classical music simple binary form was often used for dances and carried with it the convention that the two sections should be in different musical keys but maintain the same rhythm,
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duration and tone. The alternation of two tunes gives enough variety to permit a dance to be extended for as long as may be required.
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Ternary form, having three parts. In Western classical music a simple ternary form has a third section that is a recapitulation of the first (ABA). Often the first section is repeated (AABA) This approach was popular in the 18th-century operatic aria and was called da capo
2010-03-20 14:19:25 補充：
(i.e. "repeat from the top") form: later it gave rise to the 32-bar song, the B section then often being called the "middle eight". A song has more need than a dance of a self-contained form with a beginning and an end.
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contained form with a beginning and an end.
Rondo form has a recurring theme alternating with different (usually contrasting) sections called episodes. It may be asymmetrical (ABACADAEA) or symmetrical (ABACABA). A recurring section,
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especially the main theme, is sometimes more thoroughly varied, or else one episode may be a development of it. A similar arrangement is the ritornello form of the baroque concerto grosso. Arch form (ABCBA) resembles a symmetrical rondo without intermediate repetitions of the main theme.