- ?Lv 61 十年前最愛解答
資料來源: Wikipedia - Romantic Music
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Romantic music is a musicological term referring to a particular period, theory, compositional practice, and canon in European music history, from about 1815 to 1910.
Romantic music as a movement does not refer to the expression and expansion of musical ideas established in earlier periods, such as the classical period, nor does it necessarily refer to romantic love, though that theme was prevalent in many works composed during this time period. More appropriately, romanticism describes the expansion of formal structures within a composition, making the pieces more passionate and expressive. Because of the expansion of form (those elements pertaining to form, key, instrumentation and the like) within a typical composition, it became easier to identify an artist based on the work. For example, Beethoven favored a smooth transition from the 3rd to 4th movement in his symphonies, and thus his pieces are more distinguishable.
The era of Romantic music is defined as the period of European classical music that runs from 1803, when Beethoven wrote his "Eroica" Symphony, to around the end of the 19th century, as well as music written according to the norms and styles of that period. The Romantic period was preceded by the classical period, and was followed by the modernist period.
Romantic music is related to romanticism in literature, visual arts, and philosophy, though the conventional time periods used in musicology are very different from their counterparts in the other arts, which define "romantic" as running from the 1780s to the 1840s. The Romantic Movement held that not all truth could be deduced from axioms, that there were inescapable realities in the world which could only be reached through emotion, feeling and intuition.
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Romantic music struggled to increase emotional expression and power to describe these deeper truths, while preserving or even extending the formal structures from the classical period.
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Composers of the Romantic period sought to fuse the large structural harmonic planning demonstrated by earlier masters such as Haydn, and Mozart with further chromatic innovations, in order to achieve greater fluidity and contrast, and to meet the needs of longer works.
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While program music was common before the 19th century, the conflict between formal and external inspiration became an important aesthetic issue for some composers.
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During the 1830s Hector Berlioz's Symphonie Fantastique, which was presented with an extensive program text, caused many critics and academics to pick up their pens.
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Prominent among the detractors was François-Joseph Fétis, the head of the newly-founded Brussels Conservatory, who declared that the work was "not music."
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Robert Schumann defended the work, but not the program, saying that bad titles would not hurt good music, but good titles could not save a bad work. Franz Liszt was one of the prominent defenders of extra-musical inspiration.
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This rift grew, with polemics delivered from both sides. For the supporters of "absolute" music, formal perfection rested on musical expression that obeys the schematics laid down in previous works, most notably the sonata form then being codified.
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To the adherents of program music, the rhapsodic expression of poetry or some other external text was, itself, a form. They argued that for the artist to bring his life into a work, the form must follow the narrative. Both sides used Beethoven as inspiration and justification.
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In opera, the forms for individual numbers that had been established in classical and baroque opera were more loosely used.
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By the time Wagner's operas were performed, arias, choruses, recitatives and ensemble pieces often cannot easily be distinguished from each other in the continuous, through-composed music.
(未完, 還有一小段, 明天貼埋比你~ : )
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The increasing importance of nationalism as a political force in the 19th century was mirrored in music and the other arts. Many composers expressed their nationalism by incorporating elements unique to their native cultures, such as folk song, dances, and legendary histories.
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In addition to these exterior elements, there was an increasing diversification of musical language, as composers used elements of rhythm, melody, and modality characteristic of their respective nations.
希望可以幫到你! : )資料來源： Wikipedia - Romantic Music http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Romantic_music
- 1 十年前
The era of Romantic music is defined as the period of European classical music that runs roughly from the early 1800s to the first decade of the 20th century, as well as music written according to the norms and styles of that period. The Romantic period was preceded by the classical period, and was followed by the modern period.
If the Classical Period is the parent, then the Romantic Period is its unruly teenager. Known for breaking the rules of Classical Period composition and structure, the Romantic Period explores the use of large ensembles, extreme emotion, and wild orchestration. Some of the famous composers in Romantic period are Schumann, Schubert, Mendelssohn, Chopin, Liszt, Brahms, Dovark, Tchaikovsky. They have all uses unique style for their composition.
For inspiration, many Romantic composers turned to the visual arts, poetry, drama, literature, and to nature itself. Using the classical forms of sonata and symphony as a starting point, composers began focusing more on new melodic styles, richer harmonies, and ever more dissonance, in the pursuit of moving their audiences, rather than concerning themselves with the structural discipline of Classical forms. Later composers of the nineteenth century would further build on the forms and ideas developed by the Romantic composers.
This period include the sonata and short descriptive pieces, character pieces and miniatures, dance, waltz, Mazurka and Polonaise. The tempo of the music in Romantic period may be change frequently with accelerandi or ritardandi, and use of the fermata (pause) and rubato. Staccato and legato are often used, along with tenuto and accent.The melody and rhythm is also long and highly expressive in character. Ornaments are used, but not as often as in baroque and classical music. The tone of the pieces may be frequent modulations, sometimes to quite remote keys. Basically homophonic rather than polyphonic can be seen throughout the composition of Romantic Period.
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The earliest Romantic composers were all born within a few years of each other in the early years of the nineteenth century.
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They included the great German masters Felix Mendelssohn and Robert Schumann; the Polish poet of the piano Frederic Chopin; the French genius Hector Berloiz; and the greatest pianist showman in history, the Hungarian composer Franz Liszt.
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The continued modification and enhancement of existing instruments, plus the invention of new ones, led to the further expansion of the symphony orchestra throughout the century.
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Taking advantage of these new sounds and new instrumental combinations, the Romantic composers of the second half created richer and ever larger symphonies, ballets, and concertos.
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As the many socio-political revolutions of the late eighteenth century established new social orders and new ways of life and thought, so composers of the period broke musical ground by adding a new emotional depth to the prevailing classical forms.
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Throughout the remainder of the nineteenth-century, artists of all kinds became intent in expressing their subjective, personal emotions.
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“Romanticism” derives its name from the romantics of medieval times, their long poems told stories of heroes and chivalry, of distant lands and far away places, and often of unattainable love. The romantic artists were the first in history to give themselves the name by which they were identified.
- 1 十年前
珍·安·克蘭茲（英語：Jayne Ann Krentz，1948年3月28日－），結婚前名為珍·卡索（Jayne Castle）是一位美國羅曼史小說作家。作品大多帶有懸疑推理的元素在內，男女主角性格鮮明，個性堅強。克蘭茲曾以7個筆名活躍於紐約時報暢銷書排行榜上，現在多使用其中三個筆名寫書。珍·安·克蘭茲是她婚後的名字，用於寫作現代羅曼史小說，愛曼達·奎克（Amanda Quick）用來寫歷史羅曼史小說，珍·卡索是婚前姓名，用以寫未來羅曼史小說。
出版作品數量龐大，122部以上的小說總發行量超過2千3百萬本。近年致力提升羅曼史小說的地位，1992年由珍·安·克蘭茲編製、賓夕法尼亞大學出版的《危險男人與冒險女人: 言情作家論羅曼史的吸引力》一書，內容包括珊黛·布朗、珍·安·克蘭茲、瑪麗·喬·普特尼、蘿拉·金賽爾、琳達·保洛、黛安·柏瑪等著名暢銷羅曼史作家撰寫的論文集，駁斥社會上普遍存在對羅曼史小說的歧視與偏見。這一個出版物也為珍·安·克蘭茲獲得大眾文化與美國文化協會（Popular Culture Association & American Culture Association）所頒發的蘇珊寇柏曼獎（Susan Koppelman Award）。美國羅曼史小說評論雜誌浪漫時代（Romantic Times）因珍·安·克蘭茲的貢獻而創設珍奧斯汀獎，以表揚對文學有深遠影響的羅曼史小說界人士。資料來源： wiki