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癲癇症是一種由腦部電流訊號混亂所致的常見疾病,患者會出現重複性的癲癇發作。目前,香港仍未有關於癲癇症的整體統計數字;一般來說,每200至500人當中,便有1人是持續性病發的癲癇症患者。

成因

大部分的癲癇症病例皆沒有明確的成因,但一些病例亦可能與以下因素有關:

遺傳

疾病

腦部創傷

腦部發展異常

危險因素

癲癇症的危險因素,包括:

家族病史

頭部創傷

中風或其他心血管疾病

腦部感染(如腦膜炎)

孩童時因發高燒出現長時間癲癇發作

症狀

癲癇發作是由於腦部的電流訊號異常所致,可影響腦部某個區域或整個腦部,症狀則視乎受影響的部位而定。發作的持續時間一般屬短暫,通常只維持數秒至數分鐘。大部分患者每次發作的情況相同,但亦有部分患者會出現多過一種的發作。癲癇症主要可分為:

全腦性癲癇發作

失神(俗稱小發作):患者身體局部發生癲癇和會出現短暫的意識障礙。

陣攣抽搐:四肢出現突發性抽搐。

全身軟弱:患者全身肌肉突然放鬆,跌倒在地上。

強直陣攣(俗稱大發作):是最嚴重的一種發作;患者會失去知覺、四肢僵硬並出現抽搐,小部分患者亦會有失禁的情況。

局部性癲癇發作

簡單局部發作:患者仍保持清醒,但其情緒或感官(如嗅覺、味覺、聽覺、視覺等)會出現轉變。

複雜性癲癇發作:患者會在一段時間內失去意識。患者亦會呆視某人或物件,和做一些無目的的動作,如搓手、咀嚼、發出聲音等

治療方法

藥物是治療癲癇症的主要方法,目的是防止發作。約半數服食抗癲癇藥患者能完全控制癲癇發作,其餘部分患者的發作次數亦有所減少。為了得到治療成效,患者必須依足指示服用藥物。

如藥物無法有效地控制病情,醫生可能會建議其他的方法,如手術治療或植入儀器抑制發作。至於兒童患者,由醫護人員特別設計的高脂、低碳水化合物食療法亦有助控制病情。

癲癇症的處理方法

抽搐性癲癇發作(「大發作」):

施救者必須保持冷靜

避免人群聚集,保持空氣流通

移開周圍的危險物件

切勿強行捉緊患者或制止其抽搐

記錄患者出現發作的持續時間

鬆解患者頸上阻礙呼吸的衣物(如領帶)

把患者身體放側,保持呼吸暢順

在患者的頭下墊上一些柔軟的物件(如摺疊的衣服)

不要強行張開患者的嘴巴

在發作期間,不應替患者進行人工呼吸

留在患者身邊直至發作停止

非抽搐性癲癇發作:

小心看守患者,並向旁人解釋病人正出現癲癇發作

表現友善的態度,避免刺激病人的情緒

帶領病人離開危險的環境

切勿強行捉緊患者

留在患者身邊直至發作停止

更新:

2 個解答

評分
  • Tinyui
    Lv 6
    1 十年前
    最愛解答

    The epilepsy will be one kind by brain electric current signal chaotic result common disease, the patient will present the duplicated epileptic paroxysms. At present, Hong Kong had still not had about the epilepsy whole statistical figure; Generally speaking, every in the middle of 200 to 500 people, then some 1 person continues the epilepsy patient who venereal diseases send. Origin The majority of epilepsy case all does not have the explicit origin, but some cases are also possible and the following factor related: •Heredity •Disease •Brain wound •The brain development is unusual Hazard factor Epilepsy hazard factor, including: •Family medical history •Forehead wound •Stroke or other cardiovascular disease •The brain infects (for example meningitis) •When child, because gets a high fever presents the long time epileptic paroxysm Symptom The epileptic paroxysm is because brain's electric current signal exceptionally is the result, may affect brain some region or the entire brain, the symptom regards the spot which affects is decided. The outbreak duration is short generally, usually only maintains several seconds to several minutes. The majority of patients each time manifest suddenly the situation is the same, but will also have a part of patient to present many one kind of outbreaks. The epilepsy mainly may divide into:

    2010-03-04 08:47:08 補充:

    •Entire neural epileptic paroxysm •Absent-minded (is named small outbreak): The patient body will have epilepsy partially and will present the short consciousness barrier. •luan twitches: The four limbs present the burst characteristics to twitch.

    2010-03-04 08:47:09 補充:

    •Entire neural epileptic paroxysm •Absent-minded (is named small outbreak): The patient body will have epilepsy partially and will present the short consciousness barrier. •luan twitches: The four limbs present the burst characteristics to twitch.

    2010-03-04 08:47:42 補充:

    •The whole body is weak: The patient whole body muscle relaxes suddenly, tumbles in ground. •Strong straight luan (is named big outbreak): Is the most serious one kind of outbreak; The patient will pass out, the four limbs stiff and appears twitches,

    2010-03-04 08:48:20 補充:

    the young partial patients will also have the incontinence situation. •Topicality epileptic paroxysm •Simple partial outbreak: The patient still maintained sober, but its mood or the sense organ (for example sense of smell, sense of taste, sense of hearing,

    2010-03-04 08:48:40 補充:

    vision and so on) will present the transformation. •Complex epileptic paroxysm: The patient will lose consciousness for a period of time. The patient dull will also regard somebody or the thing, with will make some non-goals the movement, like will rub hands,

    2010-03-04 08:48:53 補充:

    the mastication, to make the sound and so on Method of treatment The medicine is treats the epilepsy the main method, the goal prevents the outbreak. Approximately half of take the antiepileptic patient to be able to control the epileptic paroxysm completely,

    2010-03-04 08:49:11 補充:

    other part of patient's outbreak number of times also drops. In order to obtain the treatment result, the patient must depend on the foot to instruct that takes the medicine. If the medicine is unable to control the condition effectively, doctor will possibly suggest other methods,

    2010-03-04 08:49:26 補充:

    if the surgery will treat or implants the instrument to suppress the outbreak. As for the child patient, Gao Zhi who, the low carbohydrate nutritional therapy law designs specially by the medical care personnel is also helpful to control the condition.

    2010-03-04 08:49:40 補充:

    Epilepsy processing method Twitches the epileptic paroxysm (“big outbreak”): •Rescuing must maintain calm •Avoids the crowd collect, maintains the air circulation •Periphery puts aside the dangerous thing •Is sure not to seize the tight patient forcefully or to stop it to twitch

    2010-03-04 08:49:49 補充:

    •Records the patient to present the outbreak the duration •On the loose solution patient neck hinders the breath the clothing (for example tie) •Puts the side the patient body, maintains the breath smooth •Fills up some soft things under patient's head (for example folding clothes)

    2010-03-04 08:50:02 補充:

    •Do not open patient's mouth forcefully •In outbreak period, should not carry on the artificial respiration for the patient •Keeps the patient side until the outbreak stop Must twitches the epileptic paroxysm: •The careful guarding patient, and to other people

    2010-03-04 08:50:09 補充:

    explained that the patient is presenting the epileptic paroxysm •Displays the friendly manner, avoids stimulating patient's mood •Leads the patient to leave the dangerous the environment •Is sure not to seize the tight patient forcefully •Keeps the patient side until the outbreak stop

    • Commenter avatar登入以回覆解答
  • 匿名
    1 十年前

    The epilepsy will be one kind by brain electric current signal chaotic result common disease, the patient will present the duplicated epileptic paroxysms. At present, Hong Kong had still not had about the epilepsy whole statistical figure; Generally speaking, every in the middle of 200 to 500 people, then some 1 person continues the epilepsy patient who venereal diseases send.

    Origin

    The majority of epilepsy case all does not have the explicit origin, but some cases are also possible and the following factor related:

    Heredity

    Disease

    Brain wound

    The brain development is unusual

    Hazard factor

    Epilepsy hazard factor, including:

    Family medical history

    Forehead wound

    Stroke or other cardiovascular disease

    The brain infects (for example meningitis)

    When child, because gets a high fever presents the long time epileptic paroxysm

    Symptom

    The epileptic paroxysm is because brain's electric current signal exceptionally is the result, may affect brain some region or the entire brain, the symptom regards the spot which affects is decided. The outbreak duration is short generally, usually only maintains several seconds to several minutes. The majority of patients each time manifest suddenly the situation is the same, but will also have a part of patient to present many one kind of outbreaks. The epilepsy mainly may divide into:

    Entire neural epileptic paroxysm

    資料來源: yahoo mini
    • Commenter avatar登入以回覆解答
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