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匿名 發問於 Arts & HumanitiesPhilosophy · 1 十年前

How can God give us free will and be omniscient at the same time?

Where free will is defined as the ability to choose between alternatives: God is omniscient. Since God is omniscient, God has infallible foreknowledge. If God has infallible foreknowledge that tomorrow you will engage in an event (mow the lawn), then you must invariably engage in that event (mowing the lawn).

Therefore, free-will is not possible since you have no alternative except to engage in the event (mow the lawn). In the event that you do not fulfill event, then God is not omniscient. Alternatively, if you engage in event, then you don't have free will on account of the inability to choose another alternative.

If it is to be understood that God created all that is created, the principle asserts that this poses a problem for any passive knowledge on God's part. An understanding of omniscience must be joined with an understanding of God's omnipresence in time. If God knows all events—past, future, and present—then He would know all events and decisions an individual would make, though from the individual’s perspective those events and decisions have not yet occurred. This can be viewed, at least implicitly, as a nullification of any concept of free will for any individual, though no mechanism for God's apparent foreknowledge restraining the freedom to act is posited by the principle of theological fatalism. Since, according the Christian theology, God is atemporal (existing outside of time), God knows from creation the entire course of one's life, all the actions in which he will partake, and even whether or not that individual will accept His divine authority. With these preconditions, only a starkly fatalistic theological position seems imaginable to some.

Because God has absolute foreknowledge, that means he has absolute responsibility. So, why does God create people he knows will end up in hell?

God knew that Adam would eat the fruit, god knew what children Adam would have, and God knew what each Children would decide, and each of their children and so on and so forth. How did he know? He's God.

There can be no free-will if God had foreknowledge of all events before you were even created. Also, it is contridictary to state that God could hide information from himself. If you believe that, then you also believe God could create a rock so big even he couldn't lift it.

My personal opinion is that yes, we do have free will, and herein lies the problem. If God exists, he would be all powerful, all loving and all knowing. Therefore, he would know how are lives are going to turn out. I don't think this takes away our free will, as it could simply be argued that he already knows how we will use our free will - knowing that God knows the response to our choices doesn't limit them. So far so good, but the problem arises when you factor in judgment, and heaven and hell. An all loving God would not create something and then condemn it to eternal punishment, that is the most twisted and sadistic thing I can imagine. If he knows how our lives will map out, he can see that some will reject him, and he condemns those to eternal punishment - before they are even born

Although god doesn't choose what we will choose, doesn't the act of him choosing to create us when he knows what we will choose make him responsible for the choices we make?

Give a guy a gun and a knife and put him in a room without air -- you aren't making the choice of how he will die, but you are responsible for putting him in a situation where there could be only one outcome.... isn't god responsible for putting us in a situation where he knows there will be only one outcome and he knows what it will be?

Revelation 19:6 it is stated "...the Lord God omnipotent reigneth"

Almighty. The very word means.... omnipotence.

Jeremiah 32:27: Behold, I am the LORD, the God of all flesh: is there any thing too hard for me?

Before I formed you in the womb I knew you, before you were born I set you apart; I appointed you as a prophet to the nations." (Jeremiah 1:5 NIV)

Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who has blessed us with every spiritual blessing in the heavenly places in Christ, just as He chose us in Him before the foundation of the world, that we would be holy and blameless before Him. In love He predestined us to adoption as sons through Jesus Christ to Himself, according to the kind intention of His will,..." (Eph. 1:3-5, NASB

"... but we speak God's wisdom in a mystery, the hidden wisdom which God predestined before the ages to our glory; ..." (1Co. 2:7, NASB)

Your eyes have seen my unformed substance;And in Your book were all written The days that were ordained for me, When as yet there was not one of them. (Psa. 139:16, NASB)


If God is all knowing, there isn't a need to test us. The moment he thought to create 'ME' he knew what I was capable of, what I would do, and how my life would play out.

There is NO point to creation if you're all powerful and all knowing. You ALREADY KNOW how it would play out, there isn't any point to watching it, you already know, there is no need for a test, you already know the outcome.

"God gives everyone some light. Depending on how they respond to that light is how they will be judged."

However, God chooses when, how much and what type of "light" everyone is given. He knows exactly what that person would choose as a result of having been shown that certain type and amount of "light," and when it is shown to them, and He deliberatly chooses to show it in a manner that will result in most of them burning in the Hell He created for all eternity.

更新 2:

Because God has absolute foreknowledge, that means he has absolute responsibility. Since God the Father is an all-knowing God, he knows how each of us are going to end up, but the really incredible thing is that he has known this for all of eternity. He knew long before the universe was even in existence whether you and I were going to end up in heaven or in hell. But if that is the case, then why did God allow the unsaved to be brought into this world? People who he knew he would eventually have to toss into the lake of fire?

Also one can not imply that God can do and know everything and then say he can will himself to not know something. This is called the "Liars Paradox". Examples of it include: "This statement is false" or the question, can "God create a rock so heavy that he himself can not lift it?"

更新 3:

I mentioned the "Liar Paradox" because some people like to take the easy approach to this question and announce that God simply wills himself to not have the foreknowledge of a persons pre-destination when this is not only a logical contradiction but a biblical one as well.

更新 4:

Of course he is RESPONSIBLE for the choices we choose to make, for example if he didn't create us we couldn't have any choices.

If God is all-knowing and powerful then he must know what is going to happen but if that's right then he knew evil would get the better of us and that would mean he isn't all-loving (which he is meant to be). It also rules out the idea that all things were made to choose their own path and choose to follow God.

更新 5:

Foreknowledge of an event DOES REFUTE FREE WILL *****In the event that the Creator has the ability (which he does) to stop a person from ever existing, or to choose to have a person exist, the creator of said person after being given said choice takes responsibility of everything that occurs afterwards. This would not be the case if God did not possess complete foreknowledge, because he could not be held responsible for things he did not know would occur. However, he DOES have complete foreknowledge and thus after making his choice (To create or not create each individual person) he MUST be held accountable for said individuals entire life. A few of you are trying to compare ordinary foreknowledge of a normal person vs. Gods foreknowledge without factoring in "Choice of creation" and "Complete foreknowledge".

更新 6:

A perfect example of foreknowledge implying responsibility: When God places you on this Earth, he is placing you in a situation where you will inevitably die. You have no choice in the matter, and he placed you in the situation knowing that you would die, thus he is responsible for it.

Much like, if God places you on Earth when he knows you will go to Heaven or Hell, he is responsible for it.

Even though A person may make choices which dictate where he/she ends up, it is the foreknowlege of this destination by God that implies His responsibility for said persons destination.

If I push a man in front of a truck knowing 99% for sure that it would kill him, could I not say "Had he had quicker reflexes or chose to zig instead of zag he would have lived so I am not responsible", no, so why should God who knows 100% of where this push (which I call creation) will land each of us not be held accountable either? Especially when he knows his push will land us in hell.

更新 7:

Unfortunately, I have found that far too much of a persons religious beliefs are comprised of what they would prefer to think rather. Via an amazingly complex system of compartmentilized thinking, and... gosh I'm usually not short on words to describe things but I didn't sleep tonight, suffice it to say that there IS a tendency in people to see what they want to see, and reject what they don't want to see. Quick example, if a person really wanted to believe that a coin landed on heads for him more often - he might stop while he is ahead instead of letting the average even out. Or he might conventiently forget a couple of the times a coin landed on tails, or he might be more prone to blame the coin landing on tails on a change in weather and disregard that flip, etc. Sadly it's the same thing with religion. Miracles are Gods work, disasters are Mother natures. Why? Because we want to believe God is good, so we unknowingly stack the evidence by rationalizing with false logic.

更新 8:

Zeal, yes I can tell you don't understand my logic. Simply put the crux of the matter lies in this. Free will isn't only about God not interfering with us, but about how predestination and free will itself do not mix. If God predestines a person to a fate, then what's the point of free will? I don't believe you can even call it free will at the point that God decides your fate. This post was an attempt to show how God decides your fate even if he doesn't interfere with you for the rest of your life after he creates you. God decides your fate the moment he thinks you up ~ and seals it the moment he creates you by the very act of creation coupled with his foreknowledge. If you can not comprehend that then I hope you can simply trust me about it, I assure you the logic is not flawed.

更新 9:

Carried on for Zeals question: And the reason Gods act of thinking you up and creating you coupled with foreknowledge equates to Predestination (part of the reason at least) is that God HAS A CHOICE in deciding whether or not to make you -- that's the key thing right there. Your life isn't about the choices you make if your very existence is the choice of another individual who knew all the choices you would make in the first place and then chose whether or not to create you. Even more important: God CHOOSES to create you when he knows you will end up in hell. IMO if he knows that he ought to simply not make you. Cuz what's the point? I'd rather not exist at all then end up in hell for eternity. What's a 72 years of life worth compared to hell for eternity, no thanks, I'll take non existence cuz then I won't even be able to contemplate what I'm missing so it won't matter and even if I could contemplate it I'd just be thankful I wasn't in hell. Grr I need to sleep lol.

13 個解答

  • 匿名
    1 十年前

    From the theistic point of view, perhaps the most cogent answer comes from the Deists, who say God gave us Reason and then kept his "hands" out of our affairs except perhaps to judge us in the end of our days.

    The Deists were adamant that this was God's plan---to provide one of his species with the power of Reason, perhaps as His gift to Himself, because he could----could provide Rationality to a creature. Doing so would amuse him because free will on the part of one of his species would remove that species from him omniscience, thus providing him with something to observe and keep him interested. I'm not suggesting God created a zoo animal. Just the opposite. The Deists, in the tradition of Aristotle, believed Reason was the highest value of all values, and that God had given Man a gift that was not to be misused.

    In order not to misuse this gift of Reason (which must include free will or it would be less than Reason,) they could not ignore the rationality of telling England it was being egregiously unfair and that America must remove itself from the clutches of King George and Parliament.

    Thus, America became the greatest political indicator of the existence of free will.

    ADDED: According to the email you sent, something about this answer is contradictory to something. As I said, I don't understand where the problem is.

    Your question begins this way:

    "How can God give us free will and be omniscient at the same time?

    Where free will is defined as the ability to choose between alternatives: God is omniscient. Since God is omniscient, God has infallible foreknowledge. If God has infallible foreknowledge that tomorrow you will engage in an event (mow the lawn), then you must invariably engage in that event (mowing the lawn).

    "Therefore, free-will is not possible since you have no alternative except to engage in the event (mow the lawn). In the event that you do not fulfill event, then God is not omniscient."

    I think I answered that by stating that God removed us from his field of omniscience. He does have that power, (if you believe in him,) doesn't he? He wanted to amuse himself by creating a creature about which he would NOT have omniscience, so he created Reason with its comcomittant free will, so that he could watch.

    How does that contradict your question? It answers your question.

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  • 4 年前

    There is nothing in Scripture about God giving us a free will, nor that the fall resulted in such. There is however plenty that states we are born slaves to sin, and that no man desires God apart from the work of the Holy Spirit to bring them there (and thus the process....and the why as to the need to be "born again"). God is not the author of sin, but all things happen for His glory, and nothing is outside of His control. (see Romans 9).

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  • 1 十年前

    I haven't read your whole question because I am aware of this issue.

    As you know, this issue has bothered all of the philosophers for many, many years.

    But it doesn't even have to be a "God" to create this *paradox*

    What if I had a time machine and traveled 20 years forward and saw you as the president of the United States, returned to the present and told you.

    Would you then have free will? No.

    I spoke about this with my teacher, but he couldn't really see the problem. He claimed "well, it's still up to the person to make the descisions", but I would claim the exact opposite.

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  • 1 十年前

    The answer is simple. You are assuming free will exists and you are also assuming an omniscient god exists. This contradicts itself. You must choose that either an omniscient god exists OR free will exists, you cant believe in both and have a solid argument.

    I choose to assume free will exists as i can privet a lot easier that the existence god. (Which im pretty dosent exist, but unlike an obsessed religious person, i cant be 100% about it. No one ever can, but that doesn't mean that god exists

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  • 1 十年前

    God is a volitional being. So are we. God has give us the faculty of choosing called "will." We have the ability to act with intentionality and this is central to our humanity.

    Sarte decided that human volition precluded the existence of God. He decided that freedom meant autonomy (self-law). Autonomy and a sovereign God cannot both exist in the universe.

    Human beings were not give autonomy by God but the were give the ability to choose actions. Every human can choose whether he will follow the actions God wants for him or not. When he chooses to follow an action that is against the will of God he has chosen, in his freedom of choice, to do something that God condemns.

    god gave humans the ability to make choices but it was a limited ability. When God saves someone He, as you pointed out by quoting Ephesians, does not do it with your permission.

    God exercises His sovereignty through the free choices of people. The truth is that no one wants to follow God. Humans, because they exist as sinful beings, want nothing to do with God. They reject Him no matter what choices He presents to them. Humans are incapable of choosing good until controlled by the Holy Spirit.

    God is incapable of sin. In Him is all goodness, love, mercy, purity, grace. He is transcendent. Transcendence describes His supreme and absolute greatness. His consuming majesty. His exalted loftiness. It points ot the infinite distance that separates Him from every creature.

    God cannot, in His holiness, have eternal consort with the sinful creatures that we have chosen to become. Because we hate God, because we reject Him no matter what He says or does, He could, in full righteousness, turn His back on us and allow every human who ever lived to fall into the consequence of the self-chosen sin--hell.

    However, He loves us. So much so that He Himself, in the form of Jesus, came to earth so that He could provide a means of payment for our sins that we could not pay ourselves. God, however, knows no one would, of their own will, accept the gift of salvation that He offers. So He chooses some to be saved and allows the rest to continue rejecting Him.

    How He chooses the Saved I do not know. Why He chooses these and not others I do not know. All I know is that He could save no one and instead has choosen to save many. This is clear demonstration of the underserved love, grace, and mercy that He has for us. Something that is in no way required of Him but which He has chosen to give us anyway.

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  • 匿名
    1 十年前

    Foreknowledge of an event is not a refutation of free will. Let me give you an example.

    The other day I was parked outside a shop. I saw a man rushing to the shop in an obvious panic. I KNEW the shop was closed and that the man would be ticked off trying to pull on the locked door.

    Sure enough, he reached the door, pulled on it violently and then stormed off in a huff -- exactly as I foresaw. Now, did my knowing how he was going to behave in any way change his freedom to behave? No it did not.

    Foreknowledge does not impinge on free will.

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  • 1 十年前

    Interesting (if rather long) question.

    Just one point: I grant that being omniscient leads to the conclusion that God has absolute foreknowledge, but does this necessarily deny free will?

    It is possible that God will know the consequences of every possible decision you make and every turn of events. Whatever you choose, he will know how it would turn out in reality. What reality you choose would be up to you!

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  • 1 十年前

    you still would have free will? i don't understand your logic, just because god knows your next move doesn't mean you don't choose it. This is the key difference between fatalism and determinism, just because there is only one possible outcome to things doesn't mean we don't decide this outcome, it means that there is only one possible outcome, that is all you can logically infer from a single time continuum.

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  • 匿名
    1 十年前

    That's a question that has bothered philosophers for a long time, but I guess it could be explained this way:

    God does not intrude into your decisions... but he DOES know what you are going to choose. He didn't choose this for you, you did. He just knew it all along.

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  • 1 十年前

    haven't heard that one before.

    are you recruiting?

    are you claiming insight into how god thinks?

    i would go with the religion is(has been, will be) more bad then good approach because it has more finesse.It attacks all religions equally and not just monotheistic ones.

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