paklun 發問於 飲食烹飪及食譜 · 1 十年 前

能幫我返譯依篇文做英文和給我一些關於中國飲食文化既資料(要英文)

能幫我返譯依篇文做英文和給我一些關於中國飲食文化既資料(要英文) 唔該哂

中國的飲食文化

中國人是舉世公認最會吃的民族(以漢族為主,不包括五十五個少數民族),吃的範疇之廣泛,也是任何國家無法媲美或想像的。文獻資料顯示,中國人幾乎吃遍動物、植物與礦物(李時珍《本草綱目》共收一千八百九十多種),充分發揮利用厚生之效,並且體會天人合一之境。

長久以來,因為「吃」經驗的累積而孕育了奧妙的「吃道」(「道」是技藝融會的結果),這不僅是中國人平常生活的依據,也是中國文化的標幟之一。在世界文明史上,是彌足珍貴的智慧與資產。

基本上,「吃」之為「道」,是屬於實用的形上思考,也是對飲食的自覺、經營(飲食藝術化)的結果。換句話說,是吃與道契合之後,匠心獨運所展現的生活美學。其中涵蓋多元,例如:材料的選擇、刀法的運用、五味(酸、辛、甘、甜、鹹)的調和、火候的拿捏、烹飪的規劃、吃法的講究與健康的要求等,飲食文化逐漸開啟、積澱,自成一套文化系統。

飲食地圖

中國幅員廣袤、族群繁雜,往往基於地理、氣候、物產、習俗等因素,塑造了殊異的民族性格、獨特的飲食味道與奇妙的烹飪方式。所謂南甜北鹹東辣西酸,隨地變化,千緯萬端,至於蒸煮灼滷醉溜、燉炸煨煎燒烤、燜燴燻炙涼拌生吃,因材制宜,真是五花八門。

大致說來,中國飲食約可分為黃河、長江與珠江三大流域,包括四大菜系。從文獻資料上看,最早有南、北兩味、一為揚州菜,一為孔府菜。後來踵事增華,衍變為蘇、粵、川、魯四大菜系。

蘇菜的發祥地是蘇州、揚州和杭州,其特色是味兼南北,既有清炒、清溜的南方爽口菜質,又有獅子頭、炒鱔糊的北方濃香口味;其次是以河鮮菜著名,例如:西湖糖醋魚、清蒸鰣魚(鰣魚為揚州、鎮江特有的)、大閘蟹是時令的要角;還有精美的點心與小吃,如:灌湯包子、蟹黃燒賣、松子水晶甜糕,更是馳名遐邇。

粵菜的發祥地是廣州,其特色是注重海鮮與野味,口味講究清、鮮、爽、滑,以蒸、炒、溜烹飪方式來追求原味;配菜豐富,佐料適宜;加上味粥與點心,造成粵菜特殊的形質。至於咖哩及蕃茄醬的應用,則是與西洋通商之後受到的影響。

川菜的發祥地是巴(今重慶)、蜀(今成都),其特色是重油重味、多小炒,嗜好麻辣(辣椒、花椒),如麻婆豆腐,乃集麻、辣、油、燙、鹹、滑於一身,味道奇特;從普通材料開發出美味佳餚,如豬肉可料理成回鍋肉、粉蒸肉、咕嚕肉、醬爆肉、蒜泥白肉,手藝相當神奇;加上泡菜,這就是川味的本色。

魯菜的發祥地是齊(今臨淄)、魯(今曲阜),為北味的代表。(我的老師孔德成先生就是孔府家菜的美食家,台北的北方菜館師傅大多經他指導過。他說:凡是到北京開飯館的,多半是山東去的。)其特色是以特殊的材料烹飪出厚味的大菜,因此,燕窩、魚翅、鮑魚、海參、蘑菇、銀耳等山珍海味,因緣際會;至於烤燒烹藝,也別出心裁,如脆皮烤鴨、九轉肥腸、紅燒海參等。之外,以湯調味麵食系列,加上多樣的甜點,內聚形成厚實的魯菜風味。

不過,有些學者以為中國飲食有八大菜系,即魯菜、川菜、粵菜、閩菜、蘇菜、浙菜、湘菜與皖菜。

上述的飲食生態,其實就是一張以漢民族為主的飲食地圖。然而,一九四九年的一場大變動,使這張傳統的、生活的中國飲食地圖幾乎瀕臨消失了。五十年來,它重現於華人地區的台灣和香港。香港的港式粵菜和潮州菜深受老饕喜愛;台菜則包容性強,幾乎把各種菜系都台灣化了,甚至連日本料理也變成台灣式的日本料理。

1 個解答

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  • 1 十年 前
    最佳解答

    China's diet culture The Chinese is the nationality which universally acknowledged most will eat (by the Han Nationality primarily, not including 55 national minorities), widespread which category will eat, also will be any country is unable to compare favorably with or the imagination. The literature material demonstrated that the Chinese eats the animal, the plant and the mineral nearly (Li Shi Zhen "Native Chinese Plants" altogether receives more than 1890 kinds), the full display serves the needs and enriches the lives of the people the effect, and realized that the beauty unites the boundary. Because for long, “ate” experience's accumulation to breed mysteriously “has eaten said that” (“said” was result which technique merged), not only this was the basis which the Chinese usually lived, was also one of Chinese culture signs. In the world history of civilization, is well worth the precious wisdom and the property. Basically, “eats” is “says”, is belongs to the practical shape to ponder, is also to the diet determination, the management (diet art) result. In other words, is eats after a conjunction, displays of creativity life aesthetics which unfolds. And covering many Yuan, for example: Material choice, knife skill utilization, five

    2008-09-16 20:41:11 補充:

    senses (acid, Xin, Gansu, sweet, salty) well distributed, the duration and degree of cooking acts bashful, the cooking plan, to eat method being fastidious about with the health request and so on, the diet culture opens gradually,

    2008-09-16 20:41:41 補充:

    accumulates, from becomes a set of cultural system. Diet map The Chinese breadth length and breadth, the tribal grouping tribal group are numerous and diverse, often based on factors and so on geography, climate, product, custom,

    2008-09-16 20:41:51 補充:

    has formed the far different national disposition, the unique diet flavor and the marvelous cooking way. The so-ca

    lled south sweet north salty east spicy west acid, changes anywhere, thousand latitudes multifarious, burns the halogen as

    2008-09-16 20:42:07 補充:

    for the steam boiling to be drunk slides, cooks explodes simmers fries bakes, cooks in a covered vessel braises smokes the cold food in sauce to eat uncooked, because the material takes suitable measures, is really all kinds. Mentions

    2008-09-16 20:42:18 補充:

    approximately, the Chinese diet approximately may divide into Yellow River, Yangtze River and the Pearl River three big basins, including four main dish departments. Looked from the literature material that has, north two tastes, one is the

    2008-09-16 20:42:31 補充:

    Yangzhou vegetable south most early, one for the Confucian Residence vegetable. Afterward took over a task from a predecessor and improved it, evolves for Soviet, Guangdong, Sichuan, the Lu four main dish department.

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