- SchanLv 61 十年前最愛解答
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Inuit languages comprise a dialect continuum, or dialect chain, that stretches from Unalaska and Norton Sound in Alaska , across northern Alaska and Canada , and east all the way to Greenland . Changes from western (Inupiaq) to eastern dialects are marked by the dropping of vestigial Yupik-related features, increasing consonant assimilation (e.g., kumlu, meaning "thumb," changes to kuvlu, changes to kullu), and increased consonant lengthening, and lexical change. Thus, speakers of two adjacent Inuit dialects would usually be able to understand one another, but speakers from dialects distant from each other on the dialect continuum would have difficulty understanding one another.
The four Yupik languages, including Alutiiq (Sugpiaq), Central Alaskan Yup'ik, Naukan (Naukanski), and Siberian Yupik are distinct languages with phonological, morphological, and lexical differences, and demonstrating limited mutual intelligibility. Additionally, both Alutiiq Central Yup'ik have considerable dialect diversity. The northernmost Yupik languages — Siberian Yupik and Naukanski Yupik — are linguistically only slightly closer to Inuit than is Alutiiq, which is the southernmost of the Yupik languages. Although the grammatical structures of Yupik and Inuit languages are similar, they have pronounced differences phonologically, and differences of vocabulary between Inuit and any of one of the Yupik languages is greater than between any two Yupik languages.
The Sireniki language is sometimes regarded as a third branch of the Eskimo language family, but other sources regard it as a group belonging to the Yupik branch.
An overview of the Eskimo-Aleut languages family is given below:
Western-Central dialects: Atkan, Attuan, Unangan, Bering (60-80 speakers)
Eastern dialect: Unalaskan, Pribilof (400 speakers)
Eskimo (Yup'ik, Yuit, and Inuit)
Central Alaskan Yup'ik (10,000 speakers)
Alutiiq or Pacific Gulf Yup'ik (400 speakers)
Central Siberian Yupik or Yuit (Chaplinon and St Lawrence Island, 1400 speakers)
Naukan (70 speakers)
Inuit or Inupik (75,000 speakers)
Iñupiaq (northern Alaska , 3,500 speakers)
Inuvialuktun or Inuktun (western Canada ; 765 speakers)
Inuktitut (eastern Canada ; together with Inuktun and Inuinnaqtun, 30,000 speakers)
Kalaallisut ( Greenland , 47,000 speakers)
Central Yup’ik Consonants:
c (ts/ch), g (ɣ) (velar fricative), gg (x) (unvoiced velar fricative), k, l (ɮ) (alveolar lateral fricative), ll (ɬ) (unvoiced alveolar lateral fricative), m, ḿ (voiceless m), n (alveolar), ń (voiceless n), ng (ŋ), ńg (voiceless ŋ), p, q (uvular stop), r (ʀ) (uvular fricative), rr (χ) (voiceless uvular fricative), s (z), ss (s), t (alveolar), û (w), v (v/w), vv (f), w (χw), y, ’ (gemination of preceding consonant)
Labial Labio-dental Alveolar Velar Uvular
v [v, w] vv [f]
s [z] ss [s]
g [ɣ] gg [x]
r [ʀ] rr [χ]
n ń [n̥]
ng [ŋ] ńg [ŋ̊]
l [ɮ] ll [ɬ]
Yupik languages have four vowels: 'a', 'i', 'u' and schwa. They have from 13 to 27 consonants.
Central Yup’ik Vowels:
a, aa, e (ə) (schwa), i, ii, u, uu
(In proximity to the uvular consonants 'q', 'r' or 'rr', the vowel 'i' is pronounced as a closed /e/, and 'u' as a closed /o/.)
The Yupik languages, like other Eskimo-Aleut languages, represent a particular type of agglutinative language called a polysynthetic language: it synthesizes a root and various grammatical affixes to create long words with sentence-like meanings.