- 1 十年前最愛解答
Botulinum toxin is a neurotoxin protein produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. It is one of the most poisonous naturally occurring substances in the world, and it is the most toxic protein. Though it is highly toxic, it is used in minute doses both to treat painful muscle spasms, and as a cosmetic treatment in some parts of the world. It is sold commercially under the brand names Botox and Dysport for this purpose. The terms Botox and Dysport are trade names and are not used generically to describe the neurotoxins produced by the clostridia species.
Researchers discovered in the 1950s that injecting overactive muscles with minute quantities of botulinum toxin type A decreased muscle activity by blocking the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, thereby rendering the muscle unable to contract for a period of 4 to 6 months.
Alan Scott, a San Francisco ophthalmologist, first applied tiny doses of the toxin in a medicinal sense to treat crossed eyes and uncontrollable blinking, but needed a partner to gain regulatory approval to market his discovery as a drug. Allergan, Inc., a pharmaceutical company that focused on prescription eye therapies and contact lens products, bought the rights to the drug in 1988 and received FDA approval in 1989. Allergan renamed the drug Botox.
Cosmetically desirable effects of Botox were quickly discovered thereafter when the frown lines between the eyebrows were observed to soften following treatment for eye muscle disorders, leading to clinical trials and subsequent FDA approval for cosmetic use in April 2002. As of 2006, Botox injection is the most common cosmetic operation in the United States.
Besides its cosmetic application, Botox is used in the treatment of
cervical dystonia (a neuromuscular disorder involving the head and neck)
blepharospasm (involuntary contraction of the eye muscles)
severe primary axillary hyperhidrosis (excessive sweating)[
achalasia (failure of the lower esophageal sphincter to relax)
Other uses of botulinum toxin type A that are widely known but not specifically approved by FDA include treatment of:
involuntary microexpression facial triggers (concealing a lie)
pediatric incontinence, incontinence due to overactive bladder, and incontinence due to neurogenic bladder.
spastic disorders associated with injury or disease of the central nervous system including trauma, stroke, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, or cerebral palsy
focal dystonias affecting the limbs, face, jaw, or vocal cords
TMJ pain disorders
In the Journal of Dermatologic Surgery, Eric Finzi claims to have treated clinically depressed patients with botox. On Good Morning America, he claimed that by taking away the ability to frown, he was somehow taking away the ability to feel depressed.
Treatment and prevention of chronic headache and chronic musculoskeletal pain are emerging uses for botulinum toxin type A. In addition, there is evidence that Botox may aid in weight loss by increasing the gastric emptying time.資料來源： wiki
- 1 十年前
只會抄, 呢度 Yahoo! HK, 連繁體化都懶-= ="
- zoeLv 61 十年前
如非治療用途 , 還是不要為貪靓而注射吧.
也受了很多注射時的痛苦 .資料來源： 自己