材料學問題 - 鈦金屬(ti)是如何焊接(weld)的?
鈦與鋼的焊接方法不一樣, 為什麼會這樣? 這跟鈦的原子結構有什麼關係?
- CarsonLv 61 十年前最愛解答
Commercially pure titanium and most titanium alloys are readily welded by a number of welding processes being used today. The most common method of joining titanium is the gas tungsten-arc (GTAW) process and, secondarily, the gas metal-arc (GMAW) process. Others include electron beam and more recently laser welding as well as solid state processes such as friction welding and diffusion bonding. Titanium and its alloys also can be joined by resistance welding and by brazing.
The techniques for welding titanium resemble those employed with nickel alloys and stainless steels. To achieve sound welds with titanium, primary emphasis is placed on surface cleanliness and the correct use of inert gas shielding. Molten titanium reacts readily with oxygen, nitrogen and hydrogen and exposure to these elements in air or in surface contaminants during welding can adversely affect titanium weld metal properties. As a consequence, certain welding processes such as shielded metal arc, flux cored arc and submerged arc are unsuitable for welding titanium. In addition, titanium cannot be welded to most other metals because of formation of embrittling metallic compounds that lead to weld cracking.
While chamber or glove box welding of titanium is still in use today, the vast majority of welding is done in air using inert gas shielding. Argon is the preferred shielding gas although argon-helium mixtures occasionally are used if more heat and greater weld penetration are desired. Conventional welding power supplies are used both for gas tungsten arc and for gas metal arc welding. Tungsten arc welding is done using DC straight polarity (DCSP) while reverse polarity (DCRP) is used with the metallic arc.
Inert Gas Shielding
An essential requirement for successfully arc welding titanium is proper gas shielding. Care must be taken to ensure that inert atmosphere protection is maintained until the weld metal temperature cools below 426 deg C (800 deg F). Because of the high reactivity of titanium and titanium alloys at temperatures above 550 deg C, additional precautions must be applied to shield the weldment from contact with air. This is accomplished by maintaining three separate gas streams during welding. The first or primary shield gas stream issues from the torch and shields the molten puddle and adjacent surfaces. The secondary or trailing gas shield protects the solidified weld metal and heat-affected zone during cooling. The third or backup shield protects the weld underside during welding and cooling. Various techniques are used to provide these trailing and backup shields and one example of a typical torch trailing shield construction is shown below. The backup shield can take many forms. One commonly used for straight seam welds is a copper backing bar with gas ports serving as a heat sink and shielding gas source. Complex workpiece configurations and certain shop and field circumstances call for some resourcefulness in creating the means for backup shielding. This often takes the form of plastic or aluminum foil enclosures or "tents" taped to the backside of the weld and flooded with inert gas.
Weld Joint Preparation
Titanium weld joint designs are similar to those for other metals, and the edge preparation is commonly done by machining or grinding. Before welding, it is essential that the weld joint surfaces be free of any contamination and that they remain clean during the entire welding operation. The same requirements apply to welding wire used as filler metal. Contaminants such as oil, grease and fingerprints should be removed with detergent cleaners or non-chlorinated solvents. Light surface oxides can be removed by acid pickling while heavier oxides may require grit blasting followed by pickling.
I hope this can help your understanding. :)