# physics

I want to have some information about refraction, total internal reflection and lens.

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Refraction:

Refraction is the change in direction of a wave due to a change in its speed. This is most commonly seen when a wave passes from one medium to another. Refraction of light is the most commonly seen example, but any type of wave can refract when it interacts with a medium, for example when sound waves pass from one medium into another or when water waves move into water of a different depth.

Total internal reflection:

Total internal reflection is an optical phenomenon that occurs when light strikes a medium boundary at an angle larger than the critical angle with respect to the normal to the surface. If the refractive index is lower on the other side of the boundary no light can pass through, so effectively all of the light is reflected. The critical angle is the angle of incidence above which the total internal reflection occurs.

When light crosses a boundary between materials with different refractive indices, the light beam will be partially refracted at the boundary surface, and partially reflected. However, if the angle of incidence is greater (i.e.: the ray is closer to being parallel to the boundary) than the critical angle, the angle of incidence where light is refracted so that it travels along the boundary, then the light will stop crossing the boundary altogether and instead totally reflect back internally. This can only occur where light travels from a medium with a higher refractive index to one with a lower refractive index. For example, it will occur when passing from glass to air, but not when passing from air to glass.

lens:

A lens is a device that causes light to either converge and concentrate or to diverge. It is usually formed from a piece of shaped glass or plastic. Analogous devices used with other types of electromagnetic radiation are also called lenses: for instance, a microwave lens can be made from paraffin wax.

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