- 1 十年前最愛解答
Marketing is one of the terms in academia that does not have one commonly agreed upon definition. Even after a better part of a century the debate continues. In a nutshell it consists of the social and managerial processes by which products (goods or services) and value are exchanged in order to fulfill the needs and wants of individuals or groups. Although many people seem to think that "marketing" and "advertising" are synonymous, they are not. Advertising is simply one of the many processes that together constitute marketing.
"Because the purpose of business is to create a customer, the business enterprise has two--and only two--basic functions: marketing and innovation. Marketing and innovation produce results; all the rest are costs. Marketing is the distinguishing, unique function of the business."
If marketing is the distinguishing function of the business, then what is marketing and how is it achieved?
1. "...an organizational function and a set of processes for creating, communicating, and delivering value to customers and for managing customer relationships in ways that benefit the organization and its stakeholders."
2. "Human activity directed at satisfying needs and wants through exchange processes." Philip Kotler
3. "...the ongoing process of moving people closer to making a decision to purchase, use, follow, refer, upload, download, obey, reject, conform, become complacent to someone else's products, services or values. Simply, if it doesn't facilitate a "sale" then it's not marketing."
4. "...the thing process of anticipating, identifying and satisfying customer requirements profitably" Chartered Institute of Marketing
Marketing is understanding that marketing operates on 2 different levels.
Strategic Marketing attempts to determine how an organization competes against its competition in a market place. In particular, it aims at generating a competitive advantage relative to its competition. When Jack Trout says that marketing is 'the war between competitors' and 'the conflict between companies' what he is really doing is defining marketing at the business level.
Operational Marketing executes marketing functions to attract and keep customers and to maximize the value derived from them. Also to satisfy the customer with prompt services & meeting the customer expectations.
This includes the determination of the marketing mix, advertising execution etc..
Criticism of marketing
Some aspects of marketing, especially promotion, are the subject of criticism. It is especially problematic in classical economic theory, which is based on the assumption that supply and demand are independent. However, product promotion is an attempt coming from the supply side to influence demand. In this way producer market power is attained as measured by profits that would not be realized under a free market. Then the argument follows that non-free markets are imperfect and lead to production and consumption of suboptimal amounts of the product.
Critics acknowledge that marketing has legitimate uses in connecting goods and services to the consumers who want them. Critics also point out that marketing techniques have been used to achieve morally dubious ends by businesses, governments and criminals. Critics see a systemic social evil inherent in marketing. Marketing is accused of creating ruthless exploitation of both consumers and workers by treating people as commodities whose purpose is to consume.資料來源： Wikipedia
- 1 十年前
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