加拿大的經濟( the economy of Canada)

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  • John
    Lv 7
    1 十年前
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    Canada is one of the world's wealthiest nations, a member of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and Group of Eight (G8). As with other first world nations, the Canadian economy is dominated by the service industry, which employs about three quarters of Canadians. Canada is unusual among developed countries in the importance of the primary sector, with the logging and oil industries being two of Canada's most important. Canada also has a sizeable manufacturing sector, centred in Southern Ontario, with the automobile industry especially important.

    International trade makes up a large part of the Canadian economy, particularly of its natural resources. The United States is by far its greatest trade partner, with trade with the United States accounting for about 85% of exports and 59% of imports as of 2004.

    Canada is a free market economy, usually seen to have slightly more government intervention than the United States, but less than most European nations[citation needed]. Canada has traditionally had a lower per capita gross domestic product (GDP) than its southern neighbour (whereas wealth has been more equally divided), but higher than the large western European economies. However, Ontario and the West are comparable in GDP per capita to the United States with Alberta having a higher regional income than any state or province in North America. For the last decade, after a period of turbulence, the Canadian economy has been growing rapidly with low unemployment and large government surpluses on the federal level. As such, the Canadian dollar has risen in value against most major currencies during the past five years.

    [edit] Economic sectors

    In Canada's huge land mass, the second largest in the world after Russia, a wide array of natural resources are present. Different resources are centred in different parts of Canada. In British Columbia, the forestry industry is of great importance, while the oil industry is central to Alberta's prosperity. Northern Ontario is home to a wide array of mines, while the fishing industry has long been central to the character of the Atlantic provinces, though it has recently been in steep decline.

    These industries are increasingly becoming less and less important to the overall economy. Only some 4% of Canadians are employed in these fields, and they account for less than 6% of GDP. They are still paramount in many parts of the country. Many, if not most, towns in the northern part of the country, where agriculture is difficult, exist because of a nearby mine or source of timber. Canada is a world leader in the production of many natural resources such as gold, nickel, uranium, and lead. Several of Canada's largest companies are based in natural resource industries, such as EnCana, Cameco, Goldcorp, and Barrick Gold. The vast majority of these products are exported, mainly to the United States. There are also many secondary and service industries that are directly linked to primary ones. For instance one of Canada's largest manufacturing industries is the pulp and paper sector, which is directly linked to the logging industry.

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