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Lv 6
? 發問於 文學及人文學歷史 · 1 十年前

馬丁‧路德‧金?

誰是馬丁‧路德‧金?

3 個解答

評分
  • ?
    Lv 4
    1 十年前
    最愛解答

    Martin Luther King, Jr., (15 January 1929 – 4 April 1968) was the most famous leader of the American civil rights movement, a political activist, a Baptist minister, and was one of America's greatest orators. In 1964, King became the youngest man to be awarded the Nobel Peace Prize (for his work as a peacemaker, promoting nonviolence and equal treatment for different races). On 4 April 1968, King was assassinated in Memphis, Tennessee. In 1977, he was posthumously awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom by Jimmy Carter. In 1986, Martin Luther King Day was established as a United States holiday. Martin Luther King is one of only three persons to receive this distinction (including Abraham Lincoln and George Washington), and of these persons the only one not a U.S. president, indicating his extraordinary position in American history. In 2004, King was posthumously awarded the Congressional Gold Medal.[1] King often called for personal responsibility in fostering world peace.[2] King's most influential and well-known public address is the "I Have A Dream" speech, delivered on the steps of the Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D.C. in 1963.

    Early life

    Martin Luther King, Jr., was born on 15 January 1929, in Atlanta, Georgia. He was the second child of the Reverend Martin Luther King, Sr. and Alberta Williams King between his sister, Willie Christine (September 11, 1927) and younger brother, Albert Daniel (nicknamed 'A.D.'; July 30, 1930 - July 21, 1969). According to his father, the attending physician mistakenly entered "Michael" on Martin Jr.'s birth certificate.[3] King entered Morehouse College at the age of fifteen, as he skipped his ninth and twelfth high school grades without formally graduating. In 1948, he graduated from Morehouse with a Bachelor of Arts (B.A.) degree in sociology, and enrolled in Crozer Theological Seminary in Chester, Pennsylvania and graduated with a Bachelor of Divinity (B.D.) degree in 1951. In September of that year, King began doctoral studies in Systematic Theology at Boston University and received his Doctor of Philosophy (Ph. D.) on 5 June 1955.[4]

    [edit] Civil rights activism

    In 1953, at the age of twenty-four, King became pastor of the Dexter Avenue Baptist Church, in Montgomery, Alabama. On 1 December 1955, Rosa Parks was arrested for refusing to comply with the Jim Crow laws that required her to give up her seat to a white man. The Montgomery Bus Boycott, urged and planned by E. D. Nixon (head of the Montgomery NAACP chapter and a member of the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters) and led by King, soon followed. (In March of the same year, a 15 year old school girl, Claudette Colvin, suffered the same fate but King refused to become involved, instead preferring to focus on leading his church.[5]) The boycott lasted for 382 days, the situation becoming so tense that King's house was bombed. King was arrested during this campaign, which ended with a United States Supreme Court decision outlawing racial segregation on all public transport.

    King was instrumental in the founding of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) in 1957, a group created to harness the moral authority and organizing power of black churches to conduct non-violent protests in the service of civil rights reform. King continued to dominate the organization. King was an adherent of the philosophies of nonviolent civil disobedience used successfully in India by Mohandas "Mahatma" Gandhi, and he applied this philosophy to the protests organized by the SCLC.

  • 立基
    Lv 5
    1 十年前

    小馬丁·路德·金恩(Martin Luther King, Jr.,1929年1月15日—1968年4月4日),著名的美國民權運動領袖,1964年度諾貝爾和平獎獲得者,有金恩牧師之稱。

    1929年1月29日馬丁·路德·金恩出生於喬治亞州的亞特蘭大,他的父親是一個教會牧師。1948年馬丁·路德·金恩獲得莫爾豪斯大學學士學位,1951年他又獲得柯羅澤神學院學士學位,1955年他從波士頓大學獲得神學博士學位。

    1954年馬丁·路德·金恩成為阿拉巴馬州蒙哥馬利的德克斯特大街浸信會教堂(Dexter Avenue Baptist Church)的一位牧師。1955年12月1日,一位名叫做羅沙·帕克斯的黑人婦女在公共汽車上拒絕給白人讓座位,因而被當地警員逮捕。馬丁·路德·金恩立即組織了一場罷車運動(即蒙哥馬里罷車運動),從此他成為民權運動的領袖人物。1963年金恩組織了爭取黑人工作機會和自由權的華盛頓遊行。1964年,金恩被授予諾貝爾和平獎。1968年4月4日,他在旅館的陽臺被一名刺客開槍正中喉嚨致死。

    1986年1月,總統隆納·雷根簽署法令,規定每年一月份的第三個星期一為美國的馬丁·路德·金恩紀念日以紀念這位偉人,並且訂為法定假日。迄今為止美國只有三個以個人紀念日為法定假日的例子,分別為亞伯拉罕·林肯紀念日,喬治·華盛頓紀念日與此處所提到的馬丁·路德·金恩紀念日。其中,而馬丁·路德·金恩是唯一一位非美國總統而又享有此殊榮的人。他最有影響力且最為人知的一場演講是「我有一個夢想」,迫使美國國會在1964年通過《民權法案》宣佈種族隔離和歧視政策為非法政策。

  • 1 十年前

    馬丁·路德·金恩(Martin Luther King, Jr.,1929年1月15日—1968年4月4日),著名的美國民權運動領袖,1964年度諾貝爾和平獎獲得者,有金恩牧師之稱。

    1929年1月29日馬丁·路德·金恩出生於喬治亞州的亞特蘭大,他的父親是一個教會牧師。1948年馬丁·路德·金恩獲得莫爾豪斯大學學士學位,1951年他又獲得柯羅澤神學院學士學位,1955年他從波士頓大學獲得神學博士學位。

    1954年馬丁·路德·金恩成為阿拉巴馬州蒙哥馬利的德克斯特大街浸信會教堂(Dexter Avenue Baptist Church)的一位牧師。1955年12月1日,一位名叫做羅沙·帕克斯的黑人婦女在公共汽車上拒絕給白人讓座位,因而被當地警員逮捕。馬丁·路德·金恩立即組織了一場罷車運動(即蒙哥馬里罷車運動),從此他成為民權運動的領袖人物。1963年金恩組織了爭取黑人工作機會和自由權的華盛頓遊行。1964年,金恩被授予諾貝爾和平獎。1968年4月4日,他在旅館的陽臺被一名刺客開槍正中喉嚨致死。

    1986年1月,總統隆納·雷根簽署法令,規定每年一月份的第三個星期一為美國的馬丁·路德·金恩紀念日以紀念這位偉人,並且訂為法定假日。迄今為止美國只有三個以個人紀念日為法定假日的例子,分別為亞伯拉罕·林肯紀念日,喬治·華盛頓紀念日與此處所提到的馬丁·路德·金恩紀念日。其中,而馬丁·路德·金恩是唯一一位非美國總統而又享有此殊榮的人。他最有影響力且最為人知的一場演講是「我有一個夢想」,迫使美國國會在1964年通過《民權法案》宣佈種族隔離和歧視政策為非法政策。

    他的妻子是科麗塔·斯科特·金恩。

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