請問什麼是satisficing decision 及 maximizing decision?

請問什麼是satisficing decision 及 maximizing decision?

而兩者又有什麼分別?

謝謝~

1 個解答

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  • 1 十年前
    最愛解答

    In economics, Satisficing is a behaviour which attempts to achieve at least some minimum level of a particular variable, but which does not necessarily maximize its value. The most common application of the concept in economics is in the behavioural theory of the firm, which, unlike traditional accounts, postulates that producers treat profit not as a goal to be maximized, but as a constraint. Under these theories, a critical level of profit must be achieved by firms; thereafter, priority is attached to the attainment of other goals.

    The word satisfice was coined by Herbert Simon. Simon pointed out that human beings lack the cognitive resources to maximize: we usually do not know the relevant probabilities of outcomes, we can rarely evaluate all outcomes with sufficient precision, and our memories are weak and unreliable. A more realistic approach to rationality takes into account these limitations: This is called bounded rationality.

    Some consequentialist theories in moral philosophy use the concept of satisficing in the same sense, though most call for optimization instead.

    Maximization is an economics theory, that refers to individuals or societies gaining the maximum amount out of the resources they have available to them. The theory proposed by most economists is that maximization refers to the maximization of profit.

    As some economists have begun to find out, this theory does not hold true for all people and cultures. The profit motive is not universal, and the profit motive does not seem to be applicable in all cases. People maximize in a variety of things including profit, wealth, prestige, pleasure, comfort, and social harmony.

    In today's culture, one might see many cases which explain maximization in a sense outside of profit. Occasionally, teachers may be teaching instead of working at a different, higher paying job. Another example may be a person trying to maximize personal comfort in which the person avoids a job and stays on welfare. This, certainly, is not maximizing profit in any way, but may be explained by broader economic theories about maximization which measure utility.

    Satisficing and Maximizing

    (@Moral Theorists on Practical Reason)

    How do we think about what we will do? One dominant answer is that we select the best available option. When that answeris quantified it can be expressed mathematically, thus generating a maximizing account of practical reason. However, a growing number of philosophers would offer a different answer: Because we are not equipped to maximize, we often choose the next best alternative, one that is no more than satisfactory. This strategy choice is called satisficing (a term coined by the economist Herbert Simon).

    This new collection of essays explores both these accounts of practical reason, examining the consequences for adopting one or the other for moral theory in general and the theory of practical rationality in particular. It aims to address a constituency larger than contemporary moral philosophers and bring these questions to the attention of those interested in the applications of decision theory ineconomics, psychology, and political science.

    資料來源: Internet
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