? 發問於 健康疾病及病徵其他 - 疾病 · 1 十年 前

CHOLERA(霍亂)*]]急!!!!

介紹霍亂,,包括causative agent,,symptoms,,risk factors.....

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中英文對照為佳* ..]]

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  • 匿名
    1 十年 前
    最佳解答

    霍亂是一種急性腹瀉疾病,由不潔的海產食品引起,病發高峰期在夏季,能在數小時內造成脫水甚至死亡。霍亂是由霍亂弧菌所引起的,通常是血清型O1的霍亂弧菌所致,但是在1992年曾經有O139的新血清型造成流行。霍亂弧菌存在於水中,最常見的感染原因是食用被病人糞便污染過的水。霍亂弧菌能產生霍亂毒素,造成分泌性腹瀉,即使不再進食也會不斷腹瀉,洗米水狀的糞便是霍亂的特徵。臨床上,經過一到兩天的潛伏期,霍亂的表現是突然而無痛的水瀉,然後經常會有嘔吐的現象。如果沒有補充水分與電解質,會造成休克。治療只要適當而正確的補充水分與電解質即可。預防的方法除了公共衛生的改善之外,到流行地區旅行前可以注射疫苗。

    [編輯] 中醫觀點

    本病多因飲食不慎而感受時行疫癘之邪,損傷脾胃,而致穢濁疫毒阻遏中焦,氣機逆亂,升降失司,清濁相混,亂於胃腸。若氣機逆亂,開合失司,陽氣內郁,而見汗出肢冷,是為寒證;若出現身熱、躁擾,小便黃赤,舌苔黃膩,又為熱證。氣機窒塞,上下不通,則嘔吐劇烈,泄瀉頻頻。吐瀉傷津,筋脈失養,可見轉筋攣縮、四肢抽搐。津傷氣泄,甚者導致亡陰亡陽,病情危重。霍亂總的治療原則為芳香泄濁、化濕和中。結合不同證候表現, 可分別兼以溫化寒濕、清熱化濕、辟穢解毒、養陰救逆、回陽固脫等。

    [編輯] 史上大流行

    Cholera

    first pandemic 1816–1826. Previously restricted to the Indian subcontinent, the pandemic began in Bengal, then spread across India by 1820. It extended as far as China and the Caspian Sea before receding.

    The second pandemic (1829–1851) reached Europe, London in 1832, Ontario Canada and New York in the same year, and the Pacific coast of North America by 1834.

    The third pandemic (1852–1860) mainly affected Russia, with over a million deaths. (Where it had killed Peter Tchaikovsky and his mother.)

    The fourth pandemic (1863–1875) spread mostly in Europe and Africa.

    In 1866 there was an outbreak in North America.

    In 1892 cholera contaminated the water supply of Hamburg, Germany, and caused 8,606 deaths.[1]

    The seventh pandemic (1899–1923) had little effect in Europe because of advances in public health, but Russia was badly affected again.

    The eighth pandemic began in Indonesia in 1961, called El Tor after the strain, and reached Bangladesh in 1963, India in 1964, and the USSR in 1966.

    2005年8月福建福州發生霍亂

    [編輯] 相關條目

    傳染病

    取自"http://zh.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=%E9%9C%8...

    Cholera (frequently called Asiatic cholera or epidemic cholera) is a severe diarrheal disease caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae.[1] Transmission to humans is by water or food. The natural reservoir of the organism is not known. It was long assumed to be humans, but some evidence suggests that it is the aquatic environment.

    V. cholerae produces cholera toxin, the model for enterotoxins, whose action on the mucosal epithelium is responsible for the characteristic diarrhea of the disease.[1] In its extreme manifestation, cholera is one of the most rapidly fatal illnesses known. A healthy person may become hypotensive within an hour of the onset of symptoms and may die within 2-3 hours if no treatment is provided. More commonly, the disease progresses from the first liquid stool to shock in 4-12 hours, with death following in 18 hours to several days. [2]

    Contents[hide]

    1 Epidemiology

    1.1 Susceptibility

    1.2 Transmission

    1.3 Biochemistry of the V. cholerae bacterium

    2 Symptoms

    3 Prevention

    4 Treatment

    5 History

    5.1 Origin and Spread

    5.2 Famous cholera victims

    5.3 Research

    5.4 Other historical information

    6 Trivia

    7 References

    8 External links

    Cholera

    Classification & external resources

    圖片參考:http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thum...

    Vibrio cholerae: The bacterium that causes cholera (SEM image)

    ICD-10

    A00.

    ICD-9

    001

    DiseasesDB

    2546

    MedlinePlus

    000303

    eMedicine

    med/351 ped/382

    MeSH

    C01.252.400.959.347

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cholera

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  • 1 十年 前

    Cholera is a severe diarrheal disease that can cause loss of water in body therefore causing u to faint and eventually die.

    It is caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae

    Symptome inclued terrible muscle and stomach cramps and GI tract upset.

    It is spread through dirty water

    It can be easily prevented by water cleaning.

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