first pandemic 1816–1826. Previously restricted to the Indian subcontinent, the pandemic began in Bengal, then spread across India by 1820. It extended as far as China and the Caspian Sea before receding.
The second pandemic (1829–1851) reached Europe, London in 1832, Ontario Canada and New York in the same year, and the Pacific coast of North America by 1834.
The third pandemic (1852–1860) mainly affected Russia, with over a million deaths. (Where it had killed Peter Tchaikovsky and his mother.)
The fourth pandemic (1863–1875) spread mostly in Europe and Africa.
In 1866 there was an outbreak in North America.
In 1892 cholera contaminated the water supply of Hamburg, Germany, and caused 8,606 deaths.
The seventh pandemic (1899–1923) had little effect in Europe because of advances in public health, but Russia was badly affected again.
The eighth pandemic began in Indonesia in 1961, called El Tor after the strain, and reached Bangladesh in 1963, India in 1964, and the USSR in 1966.
Cholera (frequently called Asiatic cholera or epidemic cholera) is a severe diarrheal disease caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. Transmission to humans is by water or food. The natural reservoir of the organism is not known. It was long assumed to be humans, but some evidence suggests that it is the aquatic environment.
V. cholerae produces cholera toxin, the model for enterotoxins, whose action on the mucosal epithelium is responsible for the characteristic diarrhea of the disease. In its extreme manifestation, cholera is one of the most rapidly fatal illnesses known. A healthy person may become hypotensive within an hour of the onset of symptoms and may die within 2-3 hours if no treatment is provided. More commonly, the disease progresses from the first liquid stool to shock in 4-12 hours, with death following in 18 hours to several days. 
1.3 Biochemistry of the V. cholerae bacterium
5.1 Origin and Spread
5.2 Famous cholera victims
5.4 Other historical information
8 External links
Classification & external resources
Vibrio cholerae: The bacterium that causes cholera (SEM image)
· 13 年前