孫中山革命活動的經過 要用英文回答

孫中山革命活動的經過 要用英文回答!唔該!!(10點)

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    The Xinhai Revolution or Hsinhai Revolution (Chinese: 辛亥革命; pinyin: Xīnhài Gémìng), also known as the 1911 Revolution or the Chinese Revolution, was a republican revolution which overthrew China's ruling Qing Dynasty, also known as the Manchu Dynasty, and which established the Republic of China. The revolution replaced the monarchy, which had existed for 4000 years in China, with a republic, with democratic ideals. The ensuing revolutionary war lasted from 10 October 1911 and ended with the abdication of Emperor Puyi on 12 February 1912. The revolution is so named because 1911 is a Xinhai Year in the sexagenary cycle of Chinese calendar.

    The revolution began with the armed Wuchang Uprising and the spread of republican insurrection through the southern provinces, and culminated in the abdication of the Xuantong Emperor after lengthy negotiations between rival Imperial and Republican regimes based in Beijing and Nanjing, respectively.

    The Xinhai Revolution inaugurated a period of struggle over China's eventual constitutional form, which saw two brief monarchical restorations and successive periods of political fragmentation before the Republic's final establishment.

    Today, the Xinhai Revolution is commemorated in Taiwan as Double Ten Day (Chinese: 雙十節). In mainland China, Hong Kong and Macau the same day is usually celebrated as the Anniversary of the Xinhai Revolution. Many Overseas Chinese also celebrate the anniversary, termed either "Double Ten Day" or "Anniversary of the Xinhai Revolution", and events are usually held in Chinatowns across the world.

    Contents[hide]

    1 Background

    1.1 Self-Strengthening Movement

    1.2 Hundred Days' Reform

    1.3 Abolition of the imperial examination

    1.4 Constitutionalism campaign

    1.5 Formation of new armies

    1.6 Anti-Manchu sentiment

    2 Organization for revolution

    2.1 Political views

    2.2 History of development

    2.3 Strata and groups

    2.3.1 Newly emerged intellectuals

    2.3.2 Participants of organizations

    2.3.3 Overseas Chinese

    2.3.4 Soldiers of the new armies

    2.3.5 Gentry & businessman

    2.3.6 Foreigners

    3 Preparation

    3.1 First Guangzhou uprising and follow-up

    3.1.1 Second Guangzhou uprising

    3.2 Revolutionary activities in Malaya

    4 The Wuchang Uprising

    5 After the Wuchang Uprising

    5.1 Echo from the provinces

    5.2 Provisional Government of Nanking

    5.3 Peace Negotiations between North and South

    5.4 Abdication of the emperor

    5.5 Yuan Shikai as the Provisional president

    6 See also

    7 Notes

    8 Citations

    9 References

    9.1 Primary sources

    9.2 Secondary sources

    9.2.1 English

    9.2.2 Chinese

    資料來源: WIKI
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