1 個解答

  • Silvia
    Lv 6
    1 十年前

    Ice cream or ice-cream (originally iced cream) is a frozen dessert made from dairy products, such as cream (or substituted ingredients), combined with flavorings and sweeteners, such as sugar.

    Ice cream has the following composition:

    greater than 10% milkfat by legal definition, and usually between 10% and as high as 16% fat in some premium ice creams

    9 to 12% milk solids-not-fat: this component, also known as the serum solids, contains the proteins (caseins and whey proteins) and carbohydrates (lactose) found in milk

    12 to 16% sweeteners: usually a combination of sucrose and glucose-based corn syrup sweeteners

    0.2 to 0.5% stabilizers and emulsifiers

    55% to 64% water which comes from the milk or other ingredients


    Milkfat, or fat in general, including that from non0dairy sources, is important to ice cream for the following reasons:

    increases the richness of flavour in ice cream

    produces a characteristic smooth texture by lubricating the palate

    helps to give body to the ice cream, due to its role in fat destabilization

    aids in good melting properties, also due to its role in fat destabilization

    aids in lubricating the freezer barrel during manufacturing (Non-fat mixes are extremely hard on the freezing equipment)

    The serum solids or milk solids-not-fat (MSNF) contain the lactose, caseins, whey proteins, minerals, and ash content of the product from which they were derived. They are an important ingredient for the following beneficialreasons:

    improve the texture of ice cream, due to the protein functionality

    help to give body and chew resistance to the finished product

    are capable of allowing a higher overrun without the characteristic snowy or flaky textures associated with high overrun, due also to the protein functionality

    may be a cheap source of total solids, especially whey powder


    A sweet ice cream is usually desired by the consumer. As a result, sweetening agents are added to ice cream mix at a rate of usually 12 - 16% by weight. Sweeteners improve the texture and palatability of the ice cream, enhance flavors, and are usually the cheapest source of total solids.

    The functions of stabilizers in ice cream are:

    In the mix: To stabilize the emulsion to prevent creaming of fat and, in the case of carrageenan, to prevent serum separation due to incompatibility of the other polysaccharides with milk proteins, also to aid in suspension of liquid flavours

    In the ice cream at draw from the scraped surface freezer: To stabilize the air bubbles and to hold the flavourings, e.g., ripple sauces, in dispersion

    In the ice cream during storage: To prevent lactose crystal growth and retard or reduce ice crystal growth during storage (see also the discussion on ice cream shelf life, which discusses the mode of action of stabilizers in affecting ice recrystallization), also to prevent shrinkage from collapse of the air bubbles and to prevent moisture migration into the package (in the case of paperboard) and sublimation from the surface

    In the ice cream at the time of consumption: To provide some body and mouthfeel without being gummy, and to promote good flavour release

    (Note: all of the above, except perhaps for their role in retarding ice crystallization, can be attributable to the viscosity increase in the unfrozen phase of the ice cream)

    The emulsifiers are a group of compounds in ice cream which aid in developing the appropriate fat structure and air distribution necessary for the smooth eating and good meltdown characteristics desired in ice cream.