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? 發問於 科學及數學其他 - 科學 · 1 十年前

穿梭機回程到地球的程序(10分)

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  • Peterr
    Lv 6
    1 十年前
    最愛解答

    A reusable launch system (or RLV: reusable launch vehicle) is a launch vehicle which is capable of launching into space more than once. This contrasts with expendable launch systems, where each launch vehicle is launched once and then discarded.

    No true orbital reusable launch system is in use as of August, 2006. The closest example is the partially reusable Space Shuttle. The orbiter, which includes the main engines, and the two solid rocket boosters, are reused after several months of refitting work for each launch. The external fuel drop tank is discarded.

    Orbital RLVs are thought to provide the possibility of low cost and highly reliable access to space. However, reusability implies weight penalties such as reentry shielding and possibly a stronger structure to survive multiple uses, and given the lack of experience with these vehicles, the actual costs and reliability are yet to be seen.

    Reusability concepts

    Single Stage

    Single stage to orbit requires very lightweight structures, high efficiency engines and usually implies small margins.

    Two or more stages to orbit

    Two stage to orbit requires designing and building two independent vehicles and dealing with the interactions between them at launch. Usually the second stage in launch vehicle is 5-10 times smaller than the first stage, although in bimese and trimese approaches each vehicle is the same size.

    In addition, the first stage needs to be returned to the launch site for it to be reused. This is usually proposed to be done by flying a compromise trajectory that keeps the first stage above or close to the launch site at all times, or by using small airbreathing engines to fly the vehicle back, or by recovering the first stage downrange and returning it some other way (often landing in the Sea, and returning it by ship.) Most techniques involve some performance penalty; these can require the first stage to be several times larger for the same payload, although for recovery from downrange these penalties may be small.

    The second stage is normally returned after flying one or more orbits and reentering.

    Horizontal landing

    In this case the vehicle requires wings and undercarriage (unless landing at sea). This typically requires about 9-12% of the landing vehicle to be wings; which in turn implies that the takeoff weight is higher and/or the payload smaller.

    Vertical landing

    In this approach rockets are typically used to softland the vehicle on the ground from the subsonic speeds reached at low altitude. This typically requires about 10% of the landing weight of the vehicle to be propellant.

    A slightly different approach to vertical landing is to use an autogyro or helicopter rotor. This requires perhaps 2-3% of the landing weight for the rotor.

    Horizontal takeoff

    The vehicle needs wings to takeoff. For reaching orbit, a 'wet wing' would often need to be used where the wing contains propellant. Around 9-12% of the vehicle takeoff weight is perhaps tied up in the wings.

    Vertical takeoff

    This is the traditional takeoff regime for pure rocket vehicles. Rockets are good for this regime, since they have a very high thrust/weight ratio (~100).

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reusable_launch_syste...

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