- David YeungLv 51 十年前最愛解答
Mesopotamia refers to the region now occupied by modern Iraq, eastern Syria, southeastern Turkey, and Southwest Iran. The toponym comes from the Greek words μέσος "between" and ποταμός "river", referring to the basins of the Euphrates and the Tigris rivers and the area in between. Comparably, the Arabic term is ما بين النهرين Ma Bayn Nahrain "between two rivers". The geographical area watered by these two rivers is often referred to as the "Cradle of Civilization", since it was here that the first literate societies developed in the late 4th millennium BC. Mesopotamia was coined in the Hellenistic period without any definite boundaries, to refer to a broad geographical area and probably used by the Seleucids.
Ancient Egypt was a long-standing civilization in north-eastern Africa. It was concentrated along the middle to lower reaches of the Nile River, reaching its greatest extension during the second millennium BC, which is referred to as the New Kingdom period. It reached broadly from the Nile Delta in the north, as far south as Jebel Barkal at the Fourth Cataract of the Nile. Extensions to the geographical range of ancient Egyptian civilization included, at different times, areas of the southern Levant, the Eastern Desert and the Red Sea coastline, the Sinai Peninsula and the Western Desert (focused on the several oases)
The Indus Valley Civilization (c. 3300–1300 BC, flowered 2600–1900 BC), abbreviated IVC, was an ancient riverine civilization that flourished in the Indus and the Ghagger-Hakra river valleys in what is now Pakistan and north-west India. Another name for this civilization is the Harappan Civilization, after the first excavated city of Harappa. Although IVC might have been known to the Sumerians as Meluhha, the modern world rediscovered it only in the 1920s as a result of archaeological excavations.
The Yellow River or Golden River (Traditional Chinese: 黃河; Simplified Chinese: 黄河; Hanyu Pinyin: Huáng Hélisten (help·info); Wade-Giles: Hwang-ho, sometimes simply called the River in ancient Chinese) is the second longest river in China (after Yangtze River) and the seventh longest in the world. It is 5464 km long . Originating in the Bayankala Mountains in Qinghai Province in western China, it flows through nine provinces of China and empties into the Bohai Sea.
The civilization is sometimes also called the Saraswati-Sindhu Civilization, based on the possible identification of the Ghaggar-Hakra River with the ancient Saraswati river (Sindhu being local name for the river Indus).資料來源： 網址+我