- shhhwa530Lv 41 十年前最愛解答
1) 應該是1839年倫敦條約。目的是要保證比利時的中立 。
The Schlieffen Plan takes its name from its author's, Alfred Graf von Schlieffen.
It was a plan which would allow Germany to fight a war on two fronts, and in December 1905 von Schlieffen began circulating it.
The idea of the plan was to win a two-front war quickly by first triumphing in the West again before the "Russian Steamroller" would be able to mobilize and descend upon East Prussia—the Plan scheduled 39 days for the fall of Paris .
It envisioned a rapid German mobilization, disregard of the neutrality of Luxembourg and Belgium, and an overwhelming sweep of the powerful German right wing through Belgium and Northern France in a southwesterly direction, "letting the last man on the right brush the Channel with his sleeve,"  in the words of Schlieffen, while maintaining only a defensive posture on the central and left wings, in Lorraine, the Vosges, and the Moselle.
Paris was not to be taken (the Siege of Paris had lasted for months) but to be passed by the right wing to the west of the city. The intent of the plan was not to conquer cities or industry in order to weaken the French war efforts, but to capture most of the French Army and to force France to surrender, in essence a repeat of the strategy used to defeat France during the Franco-Prussian War. The plan was that the French army would be hemmed in around Paris and forced to fight a decisive envelopment battle.
A seed of disaster lurked in the conception of the plan: both Schlieffen and the man who would eventually implement his Plan, Helmuth von Moltke the Younger, were seduced by the possibility of the double envelopment of the entire French Army by the right wing coming from the north and west of France and the left wing coming from the east. The inspiration was the destruction of the Roman Army by Hannibal's forces at the Battle of Cannae in 216 BC, which was the object of meticulous study by Schlieffen. In essence, his plan was a large scale strategic readressing of Hannibal's tactics, capitalizing on the recent breakthroughs in communications and transport.
Politically, one of the major drawbacks of the Schlieffen Plan was that it called for the invasion of the neutral states of Belgium and Holland. As it turned out, at least formally, it was the decision to invade Belgium which led to war with Great Britain.
Although the Belgian army was only a tenth the size of the German army, it still delayed the Germans for nearly a month, defending fortresses and cities. The Germans used their "Big Bertha" artillery to destroy Belgian forts in Liège, Namur and Antwerp, but the Belgians still fought back, creating a constant threat on German supply lines in the North. In addition, the German attack on neutral Belgium and reports about alleged atrocities turned public opinion in many neutral countries against Germany and Kaiser Wilhelm .
After the war, it was revealed by German documents that many German generals and politicians did not believe that the British Empire would enter the war. Because of the Treaty of London, the Triple Entente, and fear of German expansion, however, they did. It is because of the presence/effectiveness of the British Expeditionary Force.
British Expeditionary Force
Home-based regular British army forces sent to northern France at the start of World Wars I and II to support the French armies. Britain wished to help France in case of a German attack, and the BEF was created in 1908 to ensure that British forces would be trained and ready to respond quickly. It consisted of six infantry divisions and one cavalry division. Five divisions sent to France at the outbreak of World War I sustained heavy losses and were succeeded by vast British armies. Divisions sent to France early in World War II (1939) returned to England when France fell the next year.資料來源： 大部分from wikipedia
- 小友Lv 61 十年前