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Hoi Tik 發問於 社會及文化語言 · 1 十年前

英文標點(:)既用法 同意思

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2 個解答

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  • Luk
    Lv 4
    1 十年前
    最愛解答

    2. A punctuation-mark consisting of two dots placed one above the other [:] usually indicating a discontinuity of grammatical construction greater than that marked by the semicolon, but less than that marked by the period. pl. colons.

    Its best defined use is to separate clauses which are grammatically independent and discontinuous, but between which there is an apposition or similar relation of sense. Thus it may introduce an antithetic statement, an illustration, extract, etc. But ‘its use is not very exactly fixed; it was used before punctuation was refined, to mark almost any sense less than a period’ (J.). It is also employed to divide prose into metrical periods for chanting.

    COLONS

    Rule 1. Use the colon after a complete sentence to introduce a list of items when introductory words such as namely, for example, or that is do not appear.

    Examples You may be required to bring many items: sleeping bags, pans, and warm clothing.

    I want the following items: butter, sugar, and flour.

    I want an assistant who can do the following: 1) input data, 2) write reports, and 3) complete tax forms.

    Rule 2. A colon should not precede a list unless it follows a complete sentence; however, the colon is a style choice that some publications allow.

    Examples

    I want an assistant who can 1) input data, 2) write reports, and 3) complete tax forms.

    If a waitress wants to make a good impression on her customers and boss, she should

    a) dress appropriately,

    b) calculate the bill carefully, and

    c) be courteous to customers.

    There are three ways a waitress can make a good impression on her boss and her customers:

    a) Dress appropriately.

    b) Calculate the bill carefully.

    c) Be courteous to customers.

    Rule 3. Capitalization and punctuation are optional when using single words or phrases in bulleted form. If each bullet or numbered point is a complete sentence, capitalize the first word and end each sentence with proper ending punctuation. The rule of thumb is to be consistent.

    Examples I want an assistant who can do the following:

    a) input data,

    b) write reports, and

    c) complete tax forms.

    The following are requested:

    a) Wool sweaters for possible cold weather.

    b) Wet suits for snorkeling.

    c) Introductions to the local dignitaries.

    These are some of the pool rules:

    1. You must not run.

    2. If you see unsafe behavior, report it to the lifeguard.

    3. Have fun!

    Rule 4. Use a colon instead of a semicolon between two strong clauses (sentences) when the second clause explains or illustrates the first clause and no coordinating conjunction is being used to connect the clauses. Capitalization of the sentence following the colon is optional.

    Examples I enjoy reading: novels by Kurt Vonnegut are among my favorites.

    Garlic is used in Italian cooking: it greatly enhances the flavor of pasta dishes.

    Rule 5. Use the colon to introduce a direct quotation that is more than three typewritten lines in length. In this situation, leave a blank line above and below the quoted material. Single space the long quotation. Some style manuals say to indent one-half inch on both the left and right margins; others say to indent only on the left margin. Quotation marks are not used.

    Rule 6. Use the colon to follow the salutation of a business letter even when addressing someone by his/her first name. Never use a semicolon after a salutation. A comma is used after the salutation for personal correspondence.

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  • 1 十年前

    句點(Full Stop / Period,“.”)

    問號(Question Mark,“?”)

    感歎號(Exclamation Mark,“!”)

    逗點(Comma,“,”)

    冒號(Colon,“:”)

    分號(Semicolon,“;”)

    連字符(Hyphen,“-”)

    連接號(En Dash,“–”)

    破折號(Em Dash,“—”)

    括號(Parentheses,小括號“( )”;中括號“[]”;大括號“{}”)

    引號(Quotation Marks,雙引號“"”;單引號“‘”)

    縮寫及所有格符號(Apostrophe,“‘”)

    一、.句點

    1.句點用于當一句話完全結束時。

    2.句點也可以用于英文單詞的縮寫,如 Mrs., Dr., P.S. 等。但要注意的是當縮寫的字母形成暸一個單詞的時候就不要使用句點。如 IBM, DNA 等。

    二、?問號

    問號要用在一個直接的問句,而不是間接的。

    如 How will you solve the problem? 是正確的用法,但用在 I wonder how you will solve the problem?就不對暸,應該使用句點而不是問號。

    另外,在客氣的用語中,也是用句點而不是問號.

    如 Will you please give me a call tomorrow.

    三、! 感歎號

    感歎號用于感歎和驚歎的陳述中,在商業寫作中要注意感歎號的應用,因爲不恰當的使用會顯得突兀及不穩重。

    四、;分號

    1.與中文一樣,分號用于分隔地位平等的獨立子句。在某些情況下,使用分號比使用句點更顯出子句之間的緊密聯系,另外分號也經常與連接副詞 thus, however, therefore一起使用(放在這些詞語之前)。如 I realize I need exercise; however, I’ll lie down first to think about it.

    2.在句子中如果已經使用過逗點,爲暸避免歧義的産生,就用分號來分隔相似的內容。如 The employees were Tom Hanks, the manager; Jim White, the engineer; and Dr. Jack Lee.

    需要注意的是:一個完整的句子以大寫字母開始,以句點結束。寫英文時用逗點代替句點、分號、冒號或破折號叫“逗號錯”,這正是中國學生所要避免的。請比較下列例句:

    誤:It was raining hard, they could not work in the fields.

    (注意:上面句子中劃橫線的部分是兩個不同的主語,而且逗點前後的句子是完整的-----單獨拿出來都能代表一個完整的意思。因此,用逗號違反暸英文規定,即一個句子只能有一套主幹。)

    It was raining hard; they could not work in the fields.

    五、:冒號

    1.冒號用于對後面內容的介紹或解釋,如 This is her plan: go shopping.

    2.冒號用于名單之前,特別是一個豎排的名單。

    3.冒號用于一個正式的引用之前。如 The professor said: “It was horrible.”

    4.冒號也可用于商業或正式信函的稱謂後面,如 Dear Mr. Lee:(美國英語中,信件或演說詞的稱呼語之後用冒號,而在英國英語中多用逗號。)

    5.冒號用于數字時間的表示,如16:45 或 4:45 p.m.

    6.冒號用于主標題和副標題之間,如 Web Directory: World and Non-U.S. Economic Data

    六、,逗點

    1.逗點用于分隔一系列的簡單內容,如 I will go to Shanghai, Beijing, and Shenzhen.

    2.逗點用于修飾名詞的多個形容詞之間,如 a small, fancy bike

    3.逗點用于連接兩個較長的獨立子句,而且每個句子的主語不同,如 The Grizzlies were out of timeouts, and Miller missed a desperation 3-pointer as time expired.

    4.逗點用于關聯的子句之間,如 Since he’s your younger brother, please take care of him.

    5.逗點用于一個較長的修飾短語之後,如 In the middle of the coldest winter on record, the pipes froze.

    6.逗點用于直接引用的句子之前,如 Mary said, “Let’s go fishing.”(注意:這裏說的和上面提及的冒號在直接引語中的使用不一樣。如果是引用比較正式的發言講話就要用冒號,一般情況下就用逗點。)

    七、連字號Hyphen( -)

    1.連字號主要用于某些前綴(如: self-,ex-和all-) 後和構成複合詞。如:

    ex-husband(前夫),brand-new(全新的

    2.用于區分同一詞源

    3. 當某複合詞中出現重複的字母或過多的元音, 使閱讀困難時, 可用連字號把前綴和詞根分開。

    4. 構成某些複合數字

    5.用于一個詞的一部分要移行, 一般按音節間斷開單詞加連字號(例如:ha-ppy,不可斷爲hap-py……),或根據發音,不要把單個字母留在行尾或行首。注意一頁中最後一個單詞不能使用連字號將其置于兩頁。

    八、圓括弧Parenthesis( ( ) )

    1.標出表順序的數字和字母(如: (1) 、(2) 等)

    2.用來表示其中插入的或附加的解釋成分。這個插入成分可以是單詞、詞組或句子.但要注意,括號會削弱強調作用,因此,如果要強調插入的句子成份,則要用破折號。

    九、引號Quotation Marks(“”‘’)

    引號分單引號(single quotation marks) 和雙引號(double quotation marks) 。單引號只用在一個直接引語中所含有的另一個直接引語上。

    1. 表示直接引語。當直接引語超過四行或多于40 個字詞時, 一般不用引號而改用黑體字以便與文章的其它部分界線清晰

    十、省略號Ell ipsis(...)

    此省略號無論出現在句首、句中、還是句尾,都是表示單詞的省略。

    1. 表示直接引語中的省略

    2. 表示說話中的猶豫或遲疑

    3. 表示段落或整行詞句的省略, 須使用一整行黑點。

    十一、撇號或省字號Apostrophe(’)

    1.構成名詞所有格

    2.表示詞、字母、數碼、符號等的複數形式

    3.除表動詞的緊縮形式外, 還表一個或幾個字母和數字的省略。

    十二、 字底線Underline( ) 和斜體Italics

    斜體是英語的一種獨特的書寫手段, 但具有標點的作用,它和字底線的作用完全一樣。

    用于具有一定厚度的書籍、報紙、雜志、長詩、電影、作曲的標題下

    表示不常用的或還沒有被英語這一語言所接受的外來詞或短語。但外來語中的動植物科目須用字底線來表示。

    強調文章中的某些詞語,以引起讀者的注意, 相當于漢語中的著重號(即在所強調的漢字下加一個黑點) 。

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