Value Chain Analysis

What is the Value Chain Analysis?

What is its function for a company?

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  • 1 十年前
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    Value Chain Analysis describes the activities that take place in a business and relates them to an analysis of the competitive strength of the business. Influential work by Michael Porter suggested that the activities of a business could be grouped under two headings:

    (1) Primary Activities - those that are directly concerned with creating and delivering a product (e.g. component assembly); and

    (2) Support Activities, which whilst they are not directly involved in production, may increase effectiveness or efficiency (e.g. human resource management). It is rare for a business to undertake all primary and support activities.

    Value Chain Analysis is one way of identifying which activities are best undertaken by a business and which are best provided by others ("out sourced").

    Linking Value Chain Analysis to Competitive Advantage

    What activities a business undertakes is directly linked to achieving competitive advantage. For example, a business which wishes to outperform its competitors through differentiating itself through higher quality will have to perform its value chain activities better than the opposition. By contrast, a strategy based on seeking cost leadership will require a reduction in the costs associated with the value chain activities, or a reduction in the total amount of resources used.

    Primary Activities

    Primary value chain activities include:

    Primary ActivityDescription

    Inbound logisticsAll those activities concerned with receiving and storing externally sourced materials

    OperationsThe manufacture of products and services - the way in which resource inputs (e.g. materials) are converted to outputs (e.g. products)

    Outbound logisticsAll those activities associated with getting finished goods and services to buyers

    Marketing and salesEssentially an information activity - informing buyers and consumers about products and services (benefits, use, price etc.)

    ServiceAll those activities associated with maintaining product performance after the product has been sold

    Support Activities

    Support activities include:

    Secondary ActivityDescription

    Procurement This concerns how resources are acquired for a business (e.g. sourcing and negotiating with materials suppliers)

    Human Resource ManagementThose activities concerned with recruiting, developing, motivating and rewarding the workforce of a business

    Technology Development Activities concerned with managing information processing and the development and protection of "knowledge" in a business

    Infrastructure Concerned with a wide range of support systems and functions such as finance, planning, quality control and general senior management

    Steps in Value Chain Analysis

    Value chain analysis can be broken down into a three sequential steps:

    (1) Break down a market/organisation into its key activities under each of the major headings in the model;

    (2) Assess the potential for adding value via cost advantage or differentiation, or identify current activities where a business appears to be at a competitive disadvantage;

    (3) Determine strategies built around focusing on activities where competitive advantage can be sustained

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