? 發問於 文學及人文學歷史 · 1 十年前

好多 f.2 西史問題,有心人請快快入來幫我 (10分)

請解釋什麼叫absolutism, enlightened despots

介紹一下 Louis 14、 Louis 15, Louis 16, Montesquieu, Voltaire, Rousseau of Franch 同 John Locke ,James 1 of England

同介紹下 franch revolution 究竟發生了什麼事?

2 個解答

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  • 1 十年前
    最愛解答

    Absolutism can mean:

    Absolute truth (also known as 'absolutism'), the contention that in a particular domain of thought, all statements in that domain are either absolutely true or absolutely false

    Enlightened absolutism, a term used to describe the actions of absolute rulers who were influenced by the Enlightenment (eighteenth and early nineteenth century Europe)

    Moral absolutism, the position that there are absolute standards against which moral questions can be judged, and that certain actions are good or evil, regardless of the context of the act

    Autocracy (also known as 'political absolutism'), a political theory which argues that one person should hold all power

    Absolute monarchy, a form of government where the monarch has the power to rule their land freely, with no laws or legally-organized direct opposition in force

    a theory of space (see Relationalism#Absolutism_vs._Relationalism) holding that space exists absolutely, in contrast to relationalism, which holds that space exists only as relations between objects

    Enlightened absolutism (also known as benevolent or enlightened despotism) is a form of despotism where rulers were influenced by the Enlightenment, a historical period of the 18th and early 19th centuries. The term 'absolutism' was an invention of the first half of the nineteenth century and the phrase 'enlightened absolutism' was obviously not employed at the time. Indeed, it was only used after 1847, when it was coined by Wilhelm Roscher, the distinguished scholar of Nationalökonomik. The main Enlightenment-era proponent of this system was Voltaire, who regularly corresponded with several of the rulers of this time.

    The philosopher Voltaire was invited to courts throughout Europe to deliver what is now considered the message of Enlightenment to the aristocratic rulers of the continent. On the left on this painting by Adolph von Menzel, Voltaire is shown in the palace of Sanssouci with Frederick the Great.Enlightened monarchs were rulers who distinguished themselves from traditional monarchs in the way they governed. Specifically, enlightened monarchs embraced the principles of the Enlightenment, especially its emphasis upon rationality, and applied them to their territories. They tended to allow religious toleration, freedom of speech and the press, and the right to hold private property. Most fostered the arts, sciences, and education.

    Enlightened absolutists' beliefs about royal power were often similar to those of absolute monarchs, in that many believed that they had the right to govern by birth and generally refused to grant constitutions, seeing even the most pro-monarchy ones as being an inherent check on their power. The difference between an absolutist and an enlightened absolutist is based on a broad analysis of how far they embraced Enlightenment. In particular, the Holy Roman Emperor Joseph II can be said to have fully embraced the enlightened concept of the social contract. In contrast, Empress Catherine II of Russia entirely rejected the concept of the social contract while taking up many ideas of the Enlightenment, for example by being a great patron of the arts in Imperial Russia and incorporating many ideas of enlightened philosophers, especially Montesquieu, in her Nakaz, to a committee meant to revise Russian law.

    In effect, the monarchs ruled with the intent of improving the lives of their subjects in order to strengthen or reinforce their authority. For example, the abolition of serfdom in Europe was achieved by enlightened rulers. In the spirit of enlightened absolutism, Emperor Joseph II said, "Everything for the people, nothing by the people."

    You can find the people in"http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Louis "

    資料來源: http://en.wikipedia.org/
  • 1 十年前

    Well i ould like to answer your question about absolutism.

    Absolutism means the kings ruled with absolue powers they had the comlete control of the government.

    As you know, the nobles went to the crusades during the renaissnace, feudalism had almost ended and the kings took back the power from the nobles in case the people would start any wars.To make the people obey the kings, they( absolute rulers)belived in the theory of Divine Right of Kings.

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