sisley 發問於 科學及數學化學 · 1 十年前

wt is the use of sodium?

wt is the use of sodium? how can we make it from other substances?

更新:

how can we make sodium from other substances? (in eng)

3 個解答

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  • 1 十年前
    最愛解答

    Sodium in its metallic form can be used to refine some reactive metals, such as zirconium and potassium, from their compounds. This alkali metal as the Na+ ion is vital to animal life. Other uses:

    In certain alloys to improve their structure.

    In soap, in combination with fatty acids. Sodium soaps are harder (higher melting) soaps than potassium soaps.

    To descale metal (make its surface smooth).

    To purify molten metals.

    In sodium vapor lamps, an efficient means of producing light from electricity (see the picture), often used for street lighting in cities. Low-pressure sodium lamps give a distinctive yellow-orange light which consists primarily of the twin sodium D spectral lines. High-pressure sodium lamps give a more natural peach-colored light, composed of wavelengths spread much more widely across the spectrum.

    As a heat transfer fluid in some types of nuclear reactors and inside the hollow valves of high-performance internal combustion engines.

    NaCl, a compound of sodium ions and chloride ions, is an important heat transfer material.

    In organic synthesis, sodium is used as a reducing agent, for example in the Birch reduction.

    In chemistry, sodium is often used either alone or with potassium in an alloy, NaK as a desiccant for drying solvents. Used with benzophenone, it forms an intense blue coloration when the solvent is dry and oxygen-free.

    2006-12-13 20:46:39 補充:

    用途鈉在很多種重要的工業化工產品的生產中得到廣泛應用。鈉-鉀合金可以用作核反應爐的冷卻材料,有機合成的還原劑。可用於製造氰化鈉、維生素、香料、染料、鈉汞齊、四乙基鉛、金屬鈦等,還可用於石油精製等方面。鈉可用在鈉蒸氣燈中,尤其在內燃機用的致冷閥中作為一種傳熱劑。

    2006-12-13 20:46:50 補充:

    用途鈉在很多種重要的工業化工產品的生產中得到廣泛應用。鈉-鉀合金可以用作核反應爐的冷卻材料,有機合成的還原劑。可用於製造氰化鈉、維生素、香料、染料、鈉汞齊、四乙基鉛、金屬鈦等,還可用於石油精製等方面。鈉可用在鈉蒸氣燈中,尤其在內燃機用的致冷閥中作為一種傳熱劑。

    2006-12-13 20:47:34 補充:

    In certain alloys to improve their structure. In soap, in combination with fatty acids. Sodium soaps are harder (higher melting) soaps than potassium soaps.

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  • ?
    Lv 7
    1 十年前

    鈉的製備方法主要有當斯法(Downs)和卡斯納法(Castner)。

    當斯法

    在食鹽中加入氯化鈣,電解浴加熱,溫度為500℃,電壓6V,通過電解在陰極生成金屬鈉,在陽極生成氯氣。然後經過提純成型,用液體石蠟進行包裝。

    化學方程式:

    2NaCl → 2Na + Cl2

    卡斯納法

    以氫氧化鈉為原料,放入鐵質容器,熔化溫度320~330℃,以鎳為陽極,鐵為陰極,在電極之間設置鎳網隔膜,電解電壓4~4.5V,陰極析出金屬鈉,並放出氫氣。再將制得的金屬鈉精製,用液體石蠟包裝。

    化學方程式:

    4NaOH → 4Na + H2 + O2

    同位素

    已發現的鈉的同位素共有15種,包括鈉19至鈉33,其中只有鈉23是穩定的,其他同位素都帶有放射性。

    用途

    鈉在很多種重要的工業化工產品的生產中得到廣泛應用。鈉-鉀合金可以用作核反應爐的冷卻材料,有機合成的還原劑。可用於製造氰化鈉、維生素、香料、染料、鈉汞齊、四乙基鉛、金屬鈦等,還可用於石油精製等方面。

    鈉可用在鈉蒸氣燈中,尤其在內燃機用的致冷閥中作為一種傳熱劑。

    Applications

    圖片參考:http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/b/b...

    圖片參考:http://en.wikipedia.org/skins-1.5/common/images/ma...

    A low pressure sodium lamp, glowing with the light of sodium D spectral lines.

    Sodium in its metallic form can be used to refine some reactive metals, such as zirconium and potassium, from their compounds. This alkali metal as the Na+ ion is vital to animal life. Other uses:

    In certain alloys to improve their structure.

    In soap, in combination with fatty acids. Sodium soaps are harder (higher melting) soaps than potassium soaps.

    To descale metal (make its surface smooth).

    To purify molten metals.

    In sodium vapor lamps, an efficient means of producing light from electricity (see the picture), often used for street lighting in cities. Low-pressure sodium lamps give a distinctive yellow-orange light which consists primarily of the twin sodium D spectral lines. High-pressure sodium lamps give a more natural peach-colored light, composed of wavelengths spread much more widely across the spectrum.

    As a heat transfer fluid in some types of nuclear reactors and inside the hollow valves of high-performance internal combustion engines.

    NaCl, a compound of sodium ions and chloride ions, is an important heat transfer material.

    In organic synthesis, sodium is used as a reducing agent, for example in the Birch reduction.

    In chemistry, sodium is often used either alone or with potassium in an alloy, NaK as a desiccant for drying solvents. Used with benzophenone, it forms an intense blue coloration when the solvent is dry and oxygen-free.

    對人體的影響

    鈉離子(下文中簡稱鈉)是細胞外液中帶正電的離子中含量最豐富的,在身體內有助維持滲透壓,也協助神經、心臟、肌肉及各種生理功能的正常運作。鈉與水在體內的代謝與平衡有相當密切的關係,對血壓更有相當的影響。鈉是各種體液內常見的離子成分,體內的鈉主要經由腎臟製造的尿液排除,但汗水大量流失時,也可排出相當量的鈉。體內對鈉的調節與對水的調節息息相關,在下視丘可分泌抗利尿激素,作用於腎臟以減少水的排除,進而調控體內水與鈉的比例。

    缺乏鈉引起的低血鈉症會引致倦怠無力、昏睡或其他意識狀態改變、噁心嘔吐、抽筋及周邊神經症狀等癥狀;高血鈉症則會引致水腫、血壓高及意識狀態改變。身體健康者會透過腎臟將多餘的鈉排出體外。

    嬰兒和兒童的每日的鈉需要量估計為58毫克。健康的成年人每日食用的鈉量比幼兒稍高便可維持鈉的平衡。

    另外,鈉是礦物質的一種,是人體調節生理機能不可或缺的元素。攝取過多時,易罹

    患高血壓,攝取太少或缺乏時,會有疲勞、虛弱、倦怠的現象。鈉可以從自

    然食物、加工食品、調味品或某些藥物中獲得,而其最主要來源是食鹽,食

    鹽中約含有40%的鈉,即一公克食鹽中含有400毫克的鈉。

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  • ?
    Lv 4
    1 十年前

    Sodium (IPA: /ˈsəʊdiəm/) is a chemical element which has the symbol Na (Latin natrium), atomic number 11, atomic mass 22.9898 g/mol, oxidation number +1. Sodium is a soft, silvery, highly reactive element and is a member of the alkali metals within "group 1" (formally known as ‘group IA’). It has only one stable isotope, 23Na. Sodium was first isolated by Sir Humphry Davy in 1807 by passing an electric current through molten sodium hydroxide. Sodium quickly oxidizes in air so it must be stored in an inert environment such as kerosene. Sodium is present in great quantities in the earth's oceans as sodium chloride. It is also a component of many earthly minerals, and it is an essential element for animal life.

    Compared with the other alkali metals, sodium is generally more reactive than lithium and less so than potassium, in accordance with "periodic law": for example, their reaction in water, chlorine gas, etc.; the reactivity of their nitrates, chlorates, perchlorates, etc. An exception to the periodic law is regarding sodium's density. The density of the elements are expected to increase down the group. However, potassium is less dense than sodium.

    Owing to its high reactivity, sodium is found in nature only as a compound and never as the free element. Sodium reacts exothermically with water: small pea-sized pieces will bounce around the surface of the water until they are consumed by it, whereas large pieces will explode. While sodium metal reacts with water the sodium piece melts with the heat of the reaction to form a sphere if the reacting sodium is small enough. The reaction with water produces very caustic sodium hydroxide and highly flammable hydrogen gas. In any case these are considered an extreme hazard and will cause severe skin and eye injury. When burned in air, sodium forms sodium peroxide Na2O2, or with limited oxygen, the oxide Na 2O (unlike lithium, the nitride is not formed). If burned in oxygen under pressure, sodium superoxide NaO2 will be produced.

    When sodium or its compounds are introduced into a flame it will contribute a bright yellow.

    In chemistry, most sodium compounds are considered soluble but nature provides examples of many insoluble sodium compounds such as the feldspars. There are other insoluble sodium salts such as sodium bismuthate NaBiO3, sodium octamolybdate Na2Mo8O25• 4H2O, sodium thioplatinate Na4Pt3S6, sodium uranate Na2UO4. Sodium meta-antimonate's 2NaSbO3•7H2O solubility is 0.3g/L as is the pyro form Na2H2Sb2O7• H2O of this salt. Sodium metaphosphate NaPO3 has a soluble and an insoluble form.[1]

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