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Chopin Etude Op.10 No.3 背景資料.........

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    1 十年前
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    Chopin Etude Op.10No. 3 in E major

    Nicknamed 'Tristesse' ('Sadness') by the publisher, or sometimes 'L'intimité' ('Intimacy'). A slow cantabile study, in which the right hand must maintain a singing tone in the melody whilst contributing to the accompaniment. It is intended to be played together with No.4; the score indicates an attacca from one to the other.

    The Études of Frédéric Chopin are a set of technical studies for piano. They comprise two separate collections of twelve, numbered Opus 10 and Op.25, plus a further set of three without opus number.

    Although sets of exercises for piano had been common from the end of the 18th century (Czerny was the composer of a great number of the most popular), Chopin's not only presented an entirely new set of technical challenges, but were far more musically satisfying than any that preceded them — they were the first to become a regular part of the concert repertoire.Technical Demands

    Unlike most previous technical studies, which sought to cultivate an independence of finger action driven from the wrist, Chopin's require the engagement of the entire playing mechanism from the shoulder downwards. For example, Opus 10. No. 1 in C major consists of a series of wide broken chords whose span is unreachable for all but the largest hands — it is therefore necessary to use the arm to guide the fingers from note to note. Similarly, Op.25 No.10 is a study in octaves in both hands that requires powerful and flexible movements from the shoulders.

    Abby Whiteside, the 20th century pedagogue whose views on finger independence are perhaps the most scathing of any author on the subject of piano technique, made the Chopin Études the focus of all her writings — for her they were the final proof of the total inadequacy of any attempt to delegate either strength or direction to the weakest muscles of the playing apparatus.

    Musical Form

    Like the Preludes of the 48 Preludes and Fugues of JS Bach, whom Chopin was known to idolise, the Études are, generally speaking, based on a single short motif that is constantly developed. Many have a contrasting middle section in which the figuration is varied. Most are short, consisting of no more than six pages of manuscript, and lasting less than five minutes — some can be played in less than a minute and a half.

    In the first set, the Études are grouped into relative key pairs (with the exception of Nos. 6 and 7) — eg No.1 in C major is grouped with No.2 in the relative minor key of A. However in the Op.25 set, only the first two have such a relationship.

    The first études of the Opus 10 set to be composed were written when Chopin was still in his teens — as such, they rank alongside the early works of Mendelssohn as rare examples of extremely youthful compositions that are regarded as both innovative and worthy of inclusion in the standard canon.

    [edit] Études Op.10

    The first set of Études was published in 1833 (although some had been written as early as 1829). Chopin was 23 and already famous as a composer and pianist in the salons of Paris — it was here that he made the acquaintance of Franz Liszt, to whom the work is dedicated.

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