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請解釋Blood Transfusions

請解釋Blood Transfusions

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  • Mono
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    1 十年前
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    1.Definition

    - A process of transferring blood or blood-based products from one person into the circulatory system of another.

    2. Usage

    - Life-saving situations in blood transfusions

    - massive blood loss due to trauma,

    - replace blood lost during surgery.

    - Use to treat blood disease

    - severe anaemia

    - thrombocytopenia.

    3. Compatibility & Classification

    > ensure that the recipient's immune system will not attack the donor blood

    - human blood types (A, B, AB and O)

    - Rh factor (positive or negative)

    - other minor red cell antigens

    4. Screening for infection

    - HIV, syphilis

    - hepatitis B and hepatitis C

    5. Processing of blood prior to transfusion

    - Leukoreduction (removal of stray white blood cells by filtration)

    - Irradiation (avoid donor T lymphocytes from dividing in immunosuppressed patient)

    - CMV screening (virus which infects white blood cells which is asymptomatic)

    6. Procedure

    - Homologous transfusions: using the stored blood of others.

    - Autologous transfusions: using one's own stored blood.

    - Blood is administered intravenously

    - A unit (up to 500 ml) of blood is typically administered over 4 hours

    - Acetaminophen and/or an antihistamine are sometimes given before the transfusion to prevent a transfusion reaction

    7. Complications and risks

    - Febrile non-hemolytic transfusion reaction

    - Viral infection

    - Bacterial infection

    - Acute hemolytic reaction

    - Anaphylactic reaction

    - Transfusion-associated acute lung injury (TRALI).

    - Volume overload

    - Iron overload

    - Transfusion-associated graft-vs-host disease (GVHD)

    8. Blood donation

    - most commonly donated as whole blood

    - inserting a catheter into a vein a

    - collecting it in a plastic bag mixed with anticoagulant via gravity

    - Collected blood is then separated into components:

    - red blood cells

    - plasma

    - platelets

    - albumin protein

    - clotting factor concentrates

    - cryoprecipitate

    - fibrinogen concentrate

    - immunoglobulins (antibodies)

    9. Blood bank

    - whole cycle of donation

    - testing

    - separation into components

    - storage

    - administration to the recipient

    10. Contraindications to being a blood donor

    - previous malaria or hepatitis

    - a history of intravenous drug abuse

    - donors who have received human-derived pituitary hormones

    - donors with high-risk sexual behaviour (variably defined)

    - donors who have previously been transfused (12-month min. deferral)

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