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What is the history of Anishnabe? Use English to answer

I want to know the history of Anishnabe. Use English to answer please!!!

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  • 1 十年前
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    History of Anishnabe

    According to their tradition, and from recordings in birch bark scrolls, they came from the eastern areas of North America, or Turtle Island, and from along the east coast. According to the oral history, seven great miigis (radiant/iridescent) beings appeared to the peoples in the Waabanakiing (Land of the Dawn, i.e. Eastern Land) to teach the peoples of the mide way of life. However, the one of the seven great miigis beings was too spiritually powerful and killed the peoples in the Waabanakiing whenever the people were in its presence. The six great miigis beings remained to teach while the one returned into the ocean. The six great miigis beings then established doodem (clans) for the peoples in the east. Of these doodem, the five original Anishinaabe doodem were the Wawaazisii (Bullhead), Baswenaazhi (Echo-maker, i.e., Crane), Aan'aawenh (Pintail Duck), Nooke (Tender, i.e., Bear) and Moozoonsii (Little Moose), then these six miigis beings returned into the ocean as well. If the seventh miigis being stayed, it would have established the Thunderbird doodem. At a later time, one of these miigis beings appeared in a vision to relate a prophecy. The prophecy stated that if the Anishinaabeg did not move further west, they would not be able to keep their traditional ways alive because of the many new settlements and European immigrants that would arrive soon. Their migration path would be symbolized by a series of smaller Turtle Islands, which was confirmed with miigis shells (i.e., cowry shells). After receiving assurance from the their "Allied Brothers" (i.e., Mi'kmaq) and "Father" (i.e., Abnaki) of their safety in having the Anishinaabeg move inland, they advanced along the St. Lawrence River to the Ottawa River to Lake Nipissing, and then to the Great Lakes. First of these smaller Turtle Islands was Mooniyaa, which Mooniyaang (Montreal, Quebec) now stands. At their "third stopping place", the Anishinaabeg divided into six divisions: Algonquin, Nipissing, Mississaugas, Ojibwe, Odawa and Potawatomi. While the Odawa established their long-held cultural centre on Manitoulin Island, the Ojibwe established their long-held cultural centre in the Sault Ste. Marie region of Ontario, Canada. With expansion of trade under partnerships with the French and later the British, fostered by availability of Small arms, members of the Council of Three Fires expanded southward to the Ohio River, southwestward along the Illinois River, and westward along Lake Superior, Lake of the Woods and the northern Great Plains.

    As the Anishinaabeg moved inland, through both alliances and conquest, various other closely-related Algonquian peoples were incorporated into the Anishinaabe Nation. These included, but not limited to, the Noquet (originally part of the Menomini Tribe) and Mandwe (originally part of the Fox). Other incorporated groups can generally be identified by the individual's Doodem (Clan). Migizi-doodem (Bald Eagle Clan) generally identifies those whose ancestors were Americans, Awaazisii-doodem (Burbot Clan) as now extinct branch of Sioux occupying the Sault Ste. Marie region of Lake Superior and Ma'iingan-doodem (Wolf Clan) as Santee Sioux. Other Anishinaabe doodem migrated out of the core Anishinaabeg groupings, such as the Nibiinaabe-doodem (Merman Clan) that is now found as the "Water-spirit Clan" of the Winnebagos.

    Anishinaabeg peoples live as tribal governments or bands (First Nations) in both the northern United States and southern Canada, chiefly around the Great Lakes. Through treaties and Indian Removal of the past, some Anishinaabeg are also located in Kansas and Oklahoma.

    資料來源: Warren, William W. History of the Ojibway People. Borealis Books (St. Paul, MN: 1984)
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