- 匿名1 十年前最愛解答
A piano concerto is a concerto for solo piano and orchestra. It may be divided into several movements.
Concerti for the harpsichord were written throughout the Baroque era, notably by Johann Sebastian Bach (see list of compositions by Johann Sebastian Bach for a list). Today these harpsichord concerti are often performed with a piano as the solo instrument.
As the piano developed and became accepted, composers naturally started writing concerti for it. This happened in the 18th century, and so corresponded to the Classical music era. The most important composer in the development of the form in these early stages was Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. Mozart's body of masterly piano concerti put his stamp firmly on the genre well into the Romantic era.
Mozart wrote many of his 27 solo piano concerti for himself to perform (he also wrote concerti for two and three pianos). With the development of the piano virtuoso many composer-pianists did likewise, notably Ludwig van Beethoven, Carl Maria von Weber, Frédéric Chopin, Franz Liszt, Sergei Rachmaninoff and Sergei Prokofiev, and also the somewhat lesser-known Johann Nepomuk Hummel and John Field. Many other Romantic composers wrote pieces in the form, well known examples including the concerti by Robert Schumann, Edward Grieg, Edward MacDowell, Johannes Brahms and Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky.
The few well-known piano concerti which dominate today's concert programs and discographies account for only a minority of the repertoire which proliferated on the European music scene during the 19th century. Critical opinion has often dismissed the bulk of the Romantic piano concerto repertoire for its vapid mediocrity (many pieces were slavish variations on opera tunes). However, many of these compositions were more than just flashy calling-cards churned out by composer-virtuosi for their sensational tours of Europe and America. These "showpieces" were also a formative influence on the training, techniques and styles of the composers whose concerti have been accepted into the canon .
The piano concerto form survived through the 20th century into the 21st, with examples being written by Béla Bartók, Sergei Prokofiev, Igor Stravinsky, Dmitri Shostakovich, Samuel Barber, Michael Tippett, Witold Lutosławski, György Ligeti, Einojuhani Rautavaara, Leroy Anderson, Philip Glass, George Gershwin, and others.
There are examples of piano concerti written to commissions by pianists. Paul Wittgenstein, who lost his right arm during World War I, on resuming his musical career asked a number of composers to write pieces for him which required the pianist to use his left hand only. The results of these commissions include the concertante pieces for orchestra and piano left hand by Benjamin Britten, Franz Schmidt, Maurice Ravel, Sergei Prokofiev (Piano Concerto No. 4) and Erich Wolfgang Korngold.
A classical piano concerto is often in three movements.
A quick opening movement in sonata form including a cadenza (which may be improvised by the soloist).
A slow expressive movement
A faster rondo
Examples by Mozart and Beethoven follow this model, but examples abound which do not. Beethoven's fourth concerto includes a last-movement cadenza, and many composers have introduced innovations - for example Liszt's single-movement concerti.
- WYNLv 51 十年前
一件或數件獨奏樂器和樂隊協同演奏，既有對比又相互交融的作品。 用一件樂器者又稱「獨奏協奏曲」，用幾件樂器者又稱「大協奏曲」。 通常為三個樂章，但也有僅一個樂章的協奏曲，舒曼將自己這樣的作品稱為「小協奏曲」，以及樂章更多的協奏曲。
舒曼和李斯特嘗試創作單樂章的協奏曲(如李斯特的Concerto for piano and orchestra no.1, S.124(LW H4))。而多於三個樂章的協奏曲也屢見不鮮(如肖斯塔科維奇的Concerto for cello and orchestra no.1, op.107)。
協奏曲的獨奏樂器可以是任何常見的不常見的樂器，常見的如小提琴，大提琴，鋼琴，像中提琴協奏曲，管風琴協奏曲，各種管樂器協奏曲就相對少見了，更少見的還有低音提琴協奏曲，打擊樂器的協奏曲等等。除了一件獨奏樂器的協奏曲，還有一些協奏曲為兩件，三件甚至四件獨奏樂器和樂隊創作，且不像大協奏曲那樣整體地處理這些獨奏樂器和樂隊的關係，這樣就有二重，三重協奏曲等(如勃拉姆斯的Duo Concerto, op.102，貝多芬的Triple Concerto, op.56)。