AL BIO Q
how can the patients of diabetes type 2 (insulin indepenant) control their blood glucose level?
- MonoLv 71 十年前最愛解答
1. Lifestyle - diet, weight control and physical activity
You can usually reduce the level of your blood glucose and HbA1c if you:
Eat a healthy balanced diet. A practice nurse and/or dietician will give details on how to eat a healthy diet. The diet is the same as recommended for everyone. The idea that you need special foods if you have diabetes is a myth. Basically, you should aim to eat a diet low in fat, high in fibre, and with plenty of starchy foods, fruit and vegetables.
Lose weight if you are overweight. Getting to a 'perfect weight' is unrealistic for many people. However, losing some weight if you are obese or overweight will help to reduce your blood glucose level (and have other health benefits too).
Do some physical activity regularly. If you are able, a minimum of 30 minutes brisk walking at least five times a week is advised. Anything more vigorous is even better. For example, swimming, cycling, jogging, dancing. Ideally you should do an activity that gets you at least mildly out of breath and mildly sweaty. You can spread the activity over the day. (For example, two fifteen minute spells per day of brisk walking, cycling, dancing, etc.) Regular physical activity also reduces your risk of having a heart attack or stroke.
Many people with Type 2 diabetes can reduce their blood glucose (and HbA1c) to a target level by the above measures. However, if the blood glucose (or HbA1c) level remains too high after a trial of these measures for a few months, then medication is usually advised.
There are various drugs that can reduce the blood glucose level. Different ones suit different people. Some drugs work by helping insulin to work better on the body's cells. Others work by boosting the amount of insulin made by the pancreas. Another type works by slowing down the absorption of glucose from the gut. Some people need a combination of drugs to control their blood glucose level. Medication is not used instead of a healthy diet, weight control and physical activity - if possible, you should still do these things as well as take medication. See a separate leaflet called 'Treatments for Type 2 Diabetes' for more details.
3. Insulin injections
Insulin is needed in some cases if the above treatments do not work well enough. You cannot take insulin by mouth as it is destroyed by the digestive juices in the gut.